L2884

Sigma-Aldrich

Leupeptin

microbial, ≥90% (HPLC)

Synonym(s):
Acetyl-Leu-Leu-Arg-al, N-Acetyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-argininal hemisulfate salt, Leupeptin hemisulfate salt
Linear Formula:
C20H38N6O4 · 1/2H2SO4
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
475.59
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:
NACRES:
NA.77

Quality Level

biological source

microbial

assay

≥90% (HPLC)

form

powder

solubility

H2O: 10 mM (Solutions are stable for a week at 4 °C. Stock solutions are stable up to 6 months at −20 °C.)
H2O: 50 mg/mL

storage temp.

−20°C

SMILES string

OS(O)(=O)=O.CC(C)C[C@H](NC(C)=O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCNC(N)=N)C=O.CC(C)C[C@H](NC(C)=O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCNC(N)=N)C=O

InChI

1S/2C20H38N6O4.H2O4S/c2*1-12(2)9-16(24-14(5)28)19(30)26-17(10-13(3)4)18(29)25-15(11-27)7-6-8-23-20(21)22;1-5(2,3)4/h2*11-13,15-17H,6-10H2,1-5H3,(H,24,28)(H,25,29)(H,26,30)(H4,21,22,23);(H2,1,2,3,4)/t2*15-,16-,17-;/m00./s1

InChI key

CIPMKIHUGVGQTG-VFFZMTJFSA-N

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General description

Leupeptin, or N-acetyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-argininal, is a naturally occurring tripeptide that acts particularly as a serine protease inhibitor and as a cysteine protease inhibitor. Its mechanism of action involves structurally similar covalent binding reactions:
  • In the active site of serine proteases, leupeptin forms a covalent hemiacetal adduct between the aldehyde group of leupeptin and the hydroxyl group of a serine residue in the enzyme active site.
  • In the active site of cysteine proteases, the electrophilic (aldehyde) carbon of leupeptin forms a comparable bond with the sulfur atom of a cysteine residue in the enzyme active site.

Packaging

5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250 mg in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Inhibitor of serine and cysteine proteases. Inhibits plasmin, trypsin, papain, calpain, and cathepsin B. Does not inhibit pepsin, cathepsins A and D, thrombin, or α-chymotrypsin. Effective concentration 10-100 μM. There have been numerous studies using leupeptin to protect against hearing loss caused by acoustic overstimulation or the ototoxic antibiotic gentamicin. (Loss of cochlear hair cells is believed to be mediated by calpain.)

Analysis Note

Leupeptin gives multiple peaks on HPLC due to equilibria among three forms in solution. Purity determined using three main peaks. Majority of contaminating peptide is racemized leupeptin.

storage_class_code

11 - Combustible Solids

WGK Germany

WGK 3

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Elijahu Berkovich et al.
Nature protocols, 3(5), 915-922 (2008-05-03)
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Wibke Schwarzer et al.
Human molecular genetics, 18(21), 4013-4021 (2009-07-31)
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Andrey V Kuznetsov et al.
Nature protocols, 3(6), 965-976 (2008-06-10)
Analysis of mitochondrial function is central to the study of intracellular energy metabolism, mechanisms of cell death and pathophysiology of a variety of human diseases, including myopathies, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. However, important properties of mitochondria differ in vivo and...
Philipp A Jaeger et al.
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