L3012

Sigma-Aldrich

Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O111:B4

purified by gel-filtration chromatography

Synonym(s):
LPS
EC Number:
MDL number:
NACRES:
NA.25

Quality Level

biological source

Escherichia coli (O111:B4)

form

lyophilized powder

purified by

gel-filtration chromatography

impurities

<1% Protein

shipped in

ambient

storage temp.

2-8°C

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General description

This product is extracted from E. coli serotype O111:B4 and purified by gel filtration. The source strain is from a private collection. This LPS serotype has been used to stimulate B-cells and induce NOS in human hepatocytes.

Packaging

5, 10, 25 mg in glass bottle

Application

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are characteristic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS and its lipid A moiety stimulate cells of the innate immune system by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a member of the Toll-like receptor protein family, which recognizes common pathogen-associated molecular-patterns (PAMPs).

Biochem/physiol Actions

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are localized in the outer layer of the membrane and are, in noncapsulated strains, exposed on the cell surface. They contribute to the integrity of the outer membrane, and protect the cell against the action of bile salts and lipophilic antibiotics.

Preparation Note

The product is soluble in water (5 mg/ml) or cell culture medium (1 mg/ml) yielding a hazy, faint yellow solution. A more concentrated, though still hazy, solution (20 mg/ml) has been achieved in aqueous saline after vortexing and warming to 70-80 oC. Lipopolysaccharides are molecules that form micelles in every solvent. Hazy solutions are observed in water and phosphate buffered saline. Organic solvents do not give clearer solutions. Methanol yields a turbid suspension with floaters, while water yields a homogeneously hazy solution.

Pictograms

Skull and crossbones

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Statements

hazcat

Acute Tox. 2 Oral

storage_class_code

6.1A - Combustible, acute toxic Cat. 1 and 2 / very toxic hazardous materials

WGK Germany

WGK 3

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Rong Huang et al.
Bone research, 5, 17019-17019 (2017-12-22)
The activation of M1 macrophages can be achieved by stimulating them with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). However, M1 can be found under physiological conditions without any pathological stimuli. This study aimed to understand the involvement of RANKL-induced M1 macrophages...
Matthew G Frank et al.
Brain, behavior, and immunity, 73, 352-363 (2018-05-29)
Exposure to stressors induces anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, which are mediated, in part, by neuroinflammatory processes. Recent findings demonstrate that treatment with the immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory bacterium, Mycobacterium vaccae (M. vaccae), attenuates stress-induced exaggeration of peripheral inflammation and stress-induced anxiety-like...
Sheng Song et al.
Molecular neurobiology, 56(4), 2653-2669 (2018-07-28)
Environmental toxicant exposure has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Clinical manifestations of non-motor and motor symptoms in PD stem from decades of progressive neurodegeneration selectively afflicting discrete neuronal populations along a caudo-rostral axis. However, recapitulating...
Norihiko Takeda et al.
Genes & development, 24(5), 491-501 (2010-03-03)
Hypoxic response and inflammation both involve the action of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha. Previous studies have revealed that both HIF-alpha proteins are in a number of aspects similarly regulated post-translationally. However, the functional interrelationship of these two...
Zhongjie Li et al.
PloS one, 9(5), e97539-e97539 (2014-05-16)
Antimicrobial peptides have attracted much interest as a novel class of antibiotics against a variety of microbes including antibiotics resistant strains. In this study, a new cationic antimicrobial peptide Hp1404 was identified from the scorpion Heterometrus petersii, which is an...
Related Content
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide is localized in the outer layer of the membrane and is, in noncapsulated strains, exposed on the cell surface.
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