Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the pyrogenic element arising from enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. It is an amphiphilic component containing polysaccharides and lipoidic material. LPS is present in the outer membrane of the cell wall of almost all Gram-negative bacteria.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are characteristic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS and its lipid A moiety stimulate cells of the innate immune system by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a member of the Toll-like receptor protein family, which recognizes common pathogen-associated molecular-patterns (PAMPs).
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) forms a permeability barrier around the cell surface to restrict the entry of toxic molecules such as antibiotics and bile salts. Owing to their external location, this endotoxin also plays a vital role in host-bacterium interactions by regulating host immune response. LPS is a microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) that serves as a potent agonist for toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MD2-CD14 receptor complex.