4-O-β-D-Galactopyranosyl-D-fructofuranose, 4-O-β-D-Galactopyranosyl-D-fructose
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
Beilstein/REAXYS Number:
EC Number:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:

Quality Level

biological source






optical activity

[α]20/D -52.0 to -48.0 °, c = 4% (w/v) in water

SMILES string




InChI key


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25 g in poly bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide derived from galactose and fructose. It is not absorbed in the gut and is frequently used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. Studies have reported that lactulose administration may cause an increase in fecal nitrogen. It is also known to function as a prebiotic. Lactulose measurements can be used to detect gastrointestinal dysfunctions.

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves


NONH for all modes of transport

WGK Germany


Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis
Certificate of Origin
Huifang Yin et al.
Carbohydrate research, 465, 58-65 (2018-06-27)
Oligosaccharides derived from lactulose (β-D-Galp-(1 → 4)-D-Fru) are drawing more and more attention nowadays because of their strong resistance to gut digestion, and the interest to discover novel prebiotics. Compared to galactooligosaccharides, currently known structures of lactulose oligosaccharides are very limited. In...
Tara Raftery et al.
United European gastroenterology journal, 3(3), 294-302 (2015-07-03)
Vitamin D (vitD) supplementation may prolong remission in Crohn's disease (CD); however, the clinical efficacy and mechanisms are unclear. To determine changes in intestinal permeability (IP), antimicrobial peptide (AMP) concentrations and disease markers in CD, in response to vitD supplementation....
C P Kelly et al.
Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics, 37(2), 252-262 (2012-11-21)
Coeliac disease, an autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten ingestion, is managed by a gluten-free diet (GFD), which is difficult for many patients. Larazotide acetate is a first-in-class oral peptide that prevents tight junction opening, and may reduce gluten uptake and...
B Le Nevé et al.
The American journal of gastroenterology, 108(5), 786-795 (2013-04-17)
The aim of the present pilot study was to evaluate the usefulness of a test meal containing lactulose in the non-invasive assessment of visceral sensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and to identify subsets of IBS patients based on gastrointestinal...
R Mathur et al.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 98(4), E698-E702 (2013-03-28)
Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract with methanogenic archaea (methanogens) significantly affects host metabolism and weight gain in animal models, and breath methane is associated with a greater body mass index (BMI) among obese human subjects. The objective of the study...

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