Phalloidin–Tetramethylrhodamine B isothiocyanate

peptide from Amanita phalloides

Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
Molecular Weight:
MDL number:

Quality Level

biological source

peptide from Amanita phalloides


λex 540-545 nm; λem 570-573 nm

storage temp.


General description

Phalloidin is a phallotoxin produced by death cap mushroom Amanita phalloides. It is a cyclic peptide, which interacts with actin, and this was first identified in phalloidin-poisoned rats. It is a heptapeptide, cyclic in nature, with a crosslink between tryptophan at position 6 and cysteine at position 3. The side chain of amino acid 7 (γ-δ-dihydroxyleucine) in phalloidin, is accessible to modifications, through which florescent labelled phalloidin compounds can be produced.


Fluorescent phallotoxin which may be used to identify filamentous actin.

Phalloidin-Tetramethylrhodamine B isothiocyanate has been used:-
  • In Immunofluorescence for staining Filamentous actin (F-actin)
  • To stain cells during immunocytochemical and cytochemical analysis
  • To label actin microfilaments for fluorescence microscopy

Biochem/physiol Actions

Phalloidin interacts with polymeric actin, and not oligomeric or monomeric forms. This interaction leads to highly stabilized actin filaments, which resist depolymerization and disassembly. In rats, this toxin causes death due to liver hemorrhage, and cells show abnormal actin clustering. The affinity of phalloidin to actin is not significantly altered after derivatizing florescent labelled phalloidin compounds. These compounds can be used to study actin structure and organization within eukaryotic cells.
Toxin that binds polymeric F actin, stabilizing it and interfering with the function of actin-rich structures.

Other Notes

Mixed isomers


Skull and crossbones

Signal Word


Hazard Statements

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves


UN 3462 6.1 / PGII

WGK Germany


Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Cristina Belgiovine et al.
PloS one, 5(11), e14154-e14154 (2011-01-07)
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Elena Maria Boggio et al.
Molecular neurobiology, 56(9), 5987-5997 (2019-02-02)
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are condensed structures in the extracellular matrix that mainly surround GABA-ergic parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the adult brain. Previous studies revealed a parallel between PNN formation and the closure of the critical period. Moreover, ocular dominance plasticity is...
Anna Mas-Vinyals et al.
Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 181, 864-871 (2019-08-07)
Regenerative medicine requires the use of heterogeneous scaffolds when the tissue that needs to be repaired presents a gradient in its properties and cannot be replaced by a homogeneous graft. Then, an intimate contact between the different layers is critical...
Fluorescent phallotoxins as probes for filamentous actin.
H Faulstich et al.
Journal of muscle research and cell motility, 9(5), 370-383 (1988-10-01)
Nadav Sorek et al.
Plant physiology, 155(2), 706-720 (2010-12-09)
Prenylation primarily by geranylgeranylation is required for membrane attachment and function of type I Rho of Plants (ROPs) and Gγ proteins, while type II ROPs are attached to the plasma membrane by S-acylation. Yet, it is not known how prenylation...
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