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R2500

Sigma-Aldrich

all trans-Retinal

powder, ≥98%

Synonym(s):
Vitamin A aldehyde
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
C20H28O
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
284.44
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:
NACRES:
NA.79

Quality Level

biological source

synthetic (organic)

assay

≥98%

form

powder

application(s)

HPLC: suitable

color

yellow

mp

62-64 °C

shipped in

dry ice

storage temp.

−20°C

SMILES string

[H]C(=O)\C=C(C)\C=C\C=C(C)\C=C\C1=C(C)CCCC1(C)C

InChI

1S/C20H28O/c1-16(8-6-9-17(2)13-15-21)11-12-19-18(3)10-7-14-20(19,4)5/h6,8-9,11-13,15H,7,10,14H2,1-5H3/b9-6+,12-11+,16-8+,17-13+

InChI key

NCYCYZXNIZJOKI-OVSJKPMPSA-N

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General description

All trans-Retinal is one of the major derivatives of vitamin A group. A variety of food serves as a source of vitamin A. It is predominant in liver and among the brightly colored vegetables.

Application

All trans-Retinal has been used:
  • in optogenetic experiments
  • in electrophysiological experiment
  • to study the effect of AKR1B10 (aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily member) on the conversion of retinal to retinol in the airway epithelium
  • in decidual transformation of human endometrial stromal cells

Packaging

25, 100, 500 mg in ampule
1 g in ampule
Sealed ampule.

Biochem/physiol Actions

All-trans retinal is converted to retinoic acid in vivo by the action of retinal dehydrogenase. Retinoic acid is a ligand for both the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and the retinoid X receptor (RXR) that act as transcription factors to regulate the growth and differentiation of normal and malignant cells. Retinal isomers are also chromophores that bind to opsins, a family of G-protein-linked transmembrane proteins, to form photosensitive receptors in visual and nonvisual systems. All-trans retinal is a potent photosensitizer.

Other Notes

Tandem Mass Spectrometry data independently generated by Scripps Center for Metabolomics is available to view or download in PDF. R2500.pdf Tested metabolites are featured on Scripps Center for Metabolomics METLIN Metabolite Database. To learn more, visit sigma.com/metlin.

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Optogenetic and pharmacologic dissection of feedforward inhibition in Drosophila motion vision
Mauss AS, et al.
The Journal of Neuroscience, 34(6), 2254-2263 (2014)
Alexandria H Jaeger et al.
eLife, 7 (2018-10-12)
Each taste modality is generally encoded by a single, molecularly defined, population of sensory cells. However, salt stimulates multiple taste pathways in mammals and insects, suggesting a more complex code for salt taste. Here, we examine salt coding in Drosophila.
Shiho Kawamura et al.
Structure (London, England : 1993), 21(3), 426-437 (2013-02-26)
Rhodopsin, the photoreceptor pigment of the retina, initiates vision upon photon capture by its covalently linked chromophore 11-cis-retinal. In the absence of light, the chromophore serves as an inverse agonist locking the receptor in the inactive dark state. In the
Ye Zhang et al.
Nature communications, 10(1), 1560-1560 (2019-04-07)
In the Drosophila antenna, different subtypes of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in the same sensory hair (sensillum) can inhibit each other non-synaptically. However, the mechanisms underlying this underexplored form of lateral inhibition remain unclear. Here we use recordings from
Reprogramming of the retinoic acid pathway in decidualizing human endometrial stromal cells
Ozaki R, et al.
PLoS ONE, 12(3), e0173035-e0173035 (2017)

Articles

Retinoic Acid and Gene Expression

All-trans retinoic acid (RA, ATRA) is a pleiotropic activation factor that regulates genes associated with normal vertebrate cellular processes such as cell differentiation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and embryonic development.

Retinoic Acid and Gene Expression

All-trans retinoic acid (RA, ATRA) is a pleiotropic activation factor that regulates genes associated with normal vertebrate cellular processes such as cell differentiation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and embryonic development.

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