4,5-Dihydroxyanthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, Rhubarb yellow, Cassic acid, Chrysazin 3-carboxylic acid, 9,10-Dihydro-4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenecarboxylic acid, Monorhein, Rheic acid
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
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Quality Level


≥300 °C (lit.)

storage temp.


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10, 50 mg in glass insert

Biochem/physiol Actions

Constituent that is enriched in rhubarb with anti-inflammatory, anti-osteoarthritic, and anti-cancer activity. It reduces IL-1β production and secretion, caspase-3 activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, and phosphorylation of c-Jun and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK).

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M Yaron et al.
Osteoarthritis and cartilage, 7(3), 272-280 (1999-05-18)
The etiology of osteoarthritis (OA) is still a matter of debate. Several factors are known to be involved in the destruction of the articular cartilage. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) either directly or...
J P Pelletier et al.
Clinical and experimental rheumatology, 21(2), 171-177 (2003-05-16)
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the ex vivo therapeutic efficacy of diacerein and its active metabolite, rhein, on osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage chondrocyte DNA fragmentation and death in the experimental canine model of OA. The study also...
Alexandrina Ferreira Mendes et al.
Pharmacology & toxicology, 91(1), 22-28 (2002-08-24)
Diacerhein and rhein are anthraquinone compounds that ameliorate the course of osteoarthritis. Recent reports also suggest that these compounds may have antiinflammatory properties, but the cellular mechanisms by which they exert antiosteoarthritic and possibly antiinflammatory effects are still incompletely understood....
Baoen Chen et al.
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 134(43), 17963-17971 (2012-10-11)
The direct nucleic acid repair dioxygenase FTO is an enzyme that demethylates N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) residues in mRNA in vitro and inside cells. FTO is the first RNA demethylase discovered that also serves a major regulatory function in mammals. Together with...
Tom Coenye et al.
Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 51(4), 1541-1544 (2007-01-16)
We report that certain anthraquinones (AQs) reduce Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on hydroxyapatite at concentrations below the MIC. Although AQs are known to generate reactive oxygen species, the latter do not underlie the observed effect. Our results suggest that AQs...

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