All Photos(1)




≥98% (HPLC)

4-[(4,5-Dihydro-3-isoxazolyl)oxy]-N,N,N-trimethyl-2-butyn-1-aminium iodide
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:

Quality Level


≥98% (HPLC)




white to beige


H2O: 5 mg/mL, clear (warmed)

storage temp.



5, 25 mg in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Iperoxo forms an important building block for the class of G protein-coupled receptors modulators. Iperoxo specifically binds to the orthosteric site of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. It has a higher efficacy than the endogenous agonist acetylcholine.
Iperoxo is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor superagonist. The pEC50 values for G-protein activation by acetylcholine and iperoxo in CHO cells expressing recombinant human M2 receptors are 7.6 and 10.1, respectively.

Features and Benefits

This compound is a featured product for Neuroscience research. Click here to discover more featured Neuroscience products. Learn more about bioactive small molecules for other areas of research at
This compound is featured on the Acetylcholine Receptors (Muscarinic) page of the Handbook of Receptor Classification and Signal Transduction. To browse other handbook pages, click here.


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Signal Word


Hazard Statements

Precautionary Statements

Hazard Classifications

Eye Irrit. 2 - Skin Irrit. 2 - STOT SE 3

Target Organs

Respiratory system

Storage Class Code

11 - Combustible Solids

WGK Germany


Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Carlo Matera et al.
European journal of medicinal chemistry, 75, 222-232 (2014-02-19)
In this study, we synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo two groups of bis(ammonio)alkane-type compounds, 6a-9a and 6b-9b, which incorporate the orthosteric muscarinic agonist iperoxo into a molecular fragment of the M2-selective allosteric modulators W84 and naphmethonium. The...
R Schrage et al.
British journal of pharmacology, 169(2), 357-370 (2012-10-16)
Artificial agonists may have higher efficacy for receptor activation than the physiological agonist. Until now, such 'superagonism' has rarely been reported for GPCRs. Iperoxo is an extremely potent muscarinic receptor agonist. We hypothesized that iperoxo is a 'superagonist'. Signalling of...
Fabio Riefolo et al.
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 141(18), 7628-7636 (2019-04-24)
Light-triggered reversible modulation of physiological functions offers the promise of enabling on-demand spatiotemporally controlled therapeutic interventions. Optogenetics has been successfully implemented in the heart, but significant barriers to its use in the clinic remain, such as the need for genetic...
Jun Xu et al.
Molecular cell, 75(1), 53-65 (2019-05-20)
The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2R) is a prototypical GPCR that plays important roles in regulating heart rate and CNS functions. Crystal structures provide snapshots of the M2R in inactive and active states, but the allosteric link between the ligand...


Acetylcholine Receptors (Muscarinic)

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and mediate acetylcholine actions in the CNS and non-nervous tissues. Learn more about acetylcholine receptors and their role in cell signaling.

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