The biologically active form of TGF-β1 (transforming growth factor-β1 human) exists as a disulphide-linked homodimer. In mammals, three isoforms of TGF-β has been identified : TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3. TGF-β1 encodes a 25 kDa peptide. TGF-β1 precursor polypeptide is characterized with hydrophobic signal sequence, pro-region and mature peptide. Cleavage of the precursor at tetrabasic cleavage site results in monomers of carboxy-terminal 112 amino acids. The TGF-β1 gene is mapped to human chromosome 19q13.2.
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is produced by many cell types, but is reported to be most concentrated in mammalian platelets, where it is present at approximately four times the level of TGF-β2.
TGF-β1 plays a key role in embryogenesis and tissue homeostasis. TGF-β1 is fundamentally involved in differentiation by mediating adipogenesis, myogenesis, chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, epithelial cell differentiation and immune cell function. TGF-β1 is a multifunctional peptide capable of influencing cell proliferation, migration, death, tissue growth, and other functions in a wide range of cell types. TGF-β1 is associated with the developmental and metastasis of colorectal cancer. Downregulation of TGF-β1 might lead to many disease conditions, including tumor formation.
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in 35% acetonitrile, 0.1% TFA, containing 50 ug of BSA per 1 ug cytokine