2-ATHBI, 2-Acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutyl Imidazole; 1-[5-[(1R,2S,3R)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl]-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-ethanone
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
MDL number:
PubChem Substance ID:



Quality Level


white to light brown


DMSO: 2 mg/mL, clear (warmed)

storage temp.


SMILES string




InChI key



1, 5, 25 mg in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

THI is an inhibitor of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase and acts as an immunosuppressant. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) lyase catalyzes the irreversible decomposition of S1P to hexadecanaldehyde and phosphoethanolamine. Reducing S1P lyase activity results in therapeutic levels of immunosuppression without the non-lymphoid lesions that result from synthetic S1P receptor agonists.
2-Acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutyl imidazole (THI) is known to induce peripheral blood lymphopenia in rats. Studies in rats have also reported that THI can affect lymphocyte migration and degradation.

Preparation Note

THI is soluble in DMSO at a concentration that is greater than 5 mg/ml.


Exclamation mark

Signal Word


Hazard Statements


NONH for all modes of transport

WGK Germany


Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

G F Houben et al.
Fundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology, 20(1), 30-37 (1993-01-01)
Administration of the color additive caramel color III (AC) may cause a reduction in total white blood cell counts in rats due to reduced lymphocyte counts. Beside lymphopenia, several other effects in rat have been described. The effects are caused...
Yuri M Klyachkin et al.
Stem cells translational medicine, 4(11), 1333-1343 (2015-09-16)
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) triggers mobilization of bone marrow (BM)-derived stem/progenitor cells (BMSPCs) through poorly understood processes. Recently, we postulated a major role for bioactive lipids such as sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) in mobilization of BMSPCs into the peripheral blood (PB)....
Shenhe Liu et al.
Frontiers in genetics, 10, 209-209 (2019-03-29)
Heat stress has a detrimental effect on the physiological and production performance of buffaloes. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms of heat stress is challenging, therefore identifying candidate genes is urgent and necessary. We evaluated the response of buffaloes (n = 30)...
T E Mandel et al.
Clinical and experimental immunology, 88(3), 414-419 (1992-06-01)
The effect of oral administration of THI, a compound present in ammonia caramel food colouring, was studied in spontaneous and induced murine diabetes mellitus. Continuous administration of THI at 400 ppm in drinking water reduced the prevalence of spontaneous diabetes...
G F Houben et al.
Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 113(1), 43-54 (1992-03-01)
Administration of ammonia caramel color (AC) to rats may decrease blood lymphocyte counts, specifically in rats fed a diet low in vitamin B6. This effect is associated with 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI). To characterize and compare the effects of AC and THI...
Related Content
Discover Bioactive Small Molecules for Lipid Signaling Research
Read More

Our team of scientists has experience in all areas of research including Life Science, Material Science, Chemical Synthesis, Chromatography, Analytical and many others.

Contact Technical Service

Social Media

LinkedIn icon
Twitter icon
Facebook Icon
Instagram Icon


Research. Development. Production.

We are a leading supplier to the global Life Science industry with solutions and services for research, biotechnology development and production, and pharmaceutical drug therapy development and production.

© 2021 Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Reproduction of any materials from the site is strictly forbidden without permission.