Cell differentiation programs require dynamic regulation of gene expression. During meiotic prophase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of the kinetochore complex subunit Ndc80 is downregulated by a 5' extended long undecoded NDC80 transcript isoform. Here we demonstrate a transcriptional interference mechanism
Chromatin epigenetics participate in control of gene expression during metazoan development. DNA methylation and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones have been extensively characterised in cell types present in, or derived from, mouse embryos. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(46), E6339-E6348 (2015-11-19)
H3K9 methylation directs heterochromatin formation by recruiting multiple heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1)-containing complexes that deacetylate histones and methylate cytosine bases in DNA. In Neurospora crassa, a single H3K9 methyltransferase complex, called the DIM-5,-7,-9, CUL4, DDB1 Complex (DCDC), is required for
The tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) have been classically described as adaptor proteins that function as solely cytosolic signaling intermediates for the TNF receptor superfamily, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD, like receptors (NLRs), cytokine receptors, and others. In this study
Aberrant DNA methylation is one of the most frequent alterations in patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Using methylation bead arrays we analyzed the methylation status of 807 genes implicated in cancer in a group of ALL samples at diagnosis
Genetic analysis of functional redundancy of BRM ATPase and ATSWI3C subunits of Arabidopsis SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complexes.
Rafal Archacki, Tomasz J Sarnowski, Joanna Halibart-Puzio, Katarzyna Brzeska et al.
Dietary restriction increases site-specific histone H3 acetylation in rat liver: possible modulation by sirtuins.
Kyojiro Kawakami,Akihiro Nakamura,Sataro Goto
Biochemical and biophysical research communications null
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) catalyzes repressive histone 3 Lys-27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) to mediate genome-wide transcriptional repression in plants and animals. PRC2 controls various developmental processes in plants and plays a critical role in the developmental transition to flowering. FLOWERING
Small-molecule inhibitors of PARP are thought to mediate their antitumor effects as catalytic inhibitors that block repair of DNA single-strand breaks (SSB). However, the mechanism of action of PARP inhibitors with regard to their effects in cancer cells is not
The ring finger protein PCGF6 (polycomb group ring finger 6) interacts with RING1A/B and E2F6 associated factors to form a non-canonical PRC1 (polycomb repressive complex 1) known as PCGF6-PRC1. Here, we demonstrate that PCGF6-PRC1 plays a role in repressing a
Reactivation of L1 retrotransposon by benzo(a)pyrene involves complex genetic and epigenetic regulation.
Methods (San Diego, Calif.), 53(1), 91-96 (2010-07-10)
Modification-specific antibodies are important tools to examine the dynamics and functions of posttranslational protein modifications in cells. Here, we describe in detail the generation of polyclonal antibodies specific for mono-, di-, and trimethylated lysine 51 within the HIV transactivator Tat.
Plant flowering is a crucial developmental transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase and is properly timed by a number of intrinsic and environmental cues. Genetic studies have identified that chromatin modification influences the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC)
ATXR5 and ATXR6 are H3K27 monomethyltransferases required for chromatin structure and gene silencing.
Jacob, Y; Feng, S; LeBlanc, CA; Bernatavichute, YV; Stroud, H; Cokus, S; Johnson et al.
Schlafen 11 (SLFN11) was recently discovered as a cellular restriction factor against replication stress. Here, we show that SLFN11 increases chromatin accessibility genome wide, prominently at active promoters in response to replication stress induced by the checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1)
Small RNAs derived from mature tRNAs, referred to as tRNA fragments or "tRFs," are an emerging class of regulatory RNAs with poorly understood functions. We recently identified a role for one specific tRF-5' tRF-Gly-GCC, or tRF-GG-as a repressor of genes
Formaldehyde is still widely employed as a universal crosslinking agent, preservative and disinfectant, despite its proven carcinogenicity in occupationally exposed workers. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the possible impact of low-dose formaldehyde exposures in the general population.
Haploinsufficiency of EHMT1, which encodes histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase G9a-like protein (GLP), causes Kleefstra syndrome (KS), a complex disorder of developmental delay and intellectual disability. Here, we examined whether postnatal supply of GLP can reverse the neurological phenotypes
The Journal of biological chemistry, 284(6), 3709-3718 (2008-11-28)
Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2 form the core of a transcription factor network that maintains embryonic stem cells in the pluripotent state in both humans and mice. These critical factors have been implicated as both positive and negative regulators of transcription
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 30(21), 7152-7167 (2010-05-28)
Histone methyltransferases specific for the histone H3-lysine 9 residue, including Setdb1 (Set domain, bifurcated 1)/Eset/Kmt1e are associated with repressive chromatin remodeling and expressed in adult brain, but potential effects on neuronal function and behavior remain unexplored. Here, we report that
The EZH2 histone methyltransferase is required for B cells to form germinal centers (GC). Here we show that EZH2 mediates GC formation through repression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A (p21Cip1). Deletion of Cdkn1a rescues the GC reaction in Ezh2 -/-
Epigenetic information (epigenome) on chromatin is crucial for the determination of cellular identity and for the expression of cell type-specific biological functions. The cell type-specific epigenome is maintained beyond replication and cell division. Nucleosomes of chromatin just after DNA replication
Reduced hepatic stellate cell expression of Kruppel-like factor 6 tumor suppressor isoforms amplifies fibrosis during acute and chronic rodent liver injury.
Journal of cell science, 127(Pt 18), 4024-4036 (2014-07-13)
Accurate cell division requires the proper assembly of high-order septin structures. In fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), Spn1-Spn4 are assembled into a primary septin ring at the division site, and the subsequent recruitment of Mid2 to the structure results in a
Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs or L1 elements) are targeted for epigenetic silencing during early embryonic development and remain inactive in most cells and tissues. Here we show that E2F-Rb family complexes participate in L1 elements epigenetic regulation via nucleosomal
The cdk inhibitor p57kip2, encoded by the Cdkn1c gene, plays a critical role in mammalian development and in the differentiation of several tissues. Cdkn1c protein levels are carefully regulated via imprinting and other epigenetic mechanisms affecting both the promoter and
Distinct transcriptional states are maintained through organization of chromatin, resulting from the sum of numerous repressive and active histone modifications, into tightly packaged heterochromatin versus more accessible euchromatin. Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is the main mammalian complex responsible for
Stress has complex effects on hippocampal structure and function, which consequently affects learning and memory. These effects are mediated in part by circulating glucocorticoids (GC) acting via the intracellular GC receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Here, we investigated GC
Acetylation of histone H3 and adrenergic-regulated gene transcription in rat pinealocytes.
Replication-Factor-C (RFC) and RFC-like complexes (RLCs) mediate chromatin engagement of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). It remains controversial how RFC and RLCs cooperate to regulate PCNA loading and unloading. Here, we show the distinct PCNA loading or unloading activity
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