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Wenli Li et al.
Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology, 131(2), 612-628 (2012-11-13)
Phosgene gas is a lower respiratory tract irritant. As such, it stimulates nociceptive vagal C-fiber-related reflexes in a dose-rate and concentration × exposure duration (C × t)-dependent manner. In rats, this reflex is characterized by extended apnea time periods, bradycardia...
Yi-ru Shao et al.
Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases, 30(4), 278-283 (2012-07-19)
This study aimed to investigate the expression and role of the mitogen activated protein kinases (ERK1/2, P38, JNK) in phosgene induced lung injury in rats in vivo. 30 male wistar rats were randomized into the group as follows, Gas inhalation...
Hong-li Chen et al.
Journal of applied toxicology : JAT, 33(1), 71-77 (2011-08-06)
Phosgene is a poorly water-soluble gas penetrating the lower respiratory tract which can induce acute lung injury characterized by a latent phase of fatal pulmonary edema. Pulmonary edema caused by phosgene is believed to be a consequence of oxidative stress...
Devon Andres et al.
BMC neuroscience, 14, 49-49 (2013-04-20)
Immortalized neuronal cell lines can be induced to differentiate into more mature neurons by adding specific compounds or growth factors to the culture medium. This property makes neuronal cell lines attractive as in vitro cell models to study neuronal functions...
Sa Luo et al.
Toxicology letters, 229(1), 85-92 (2014-06-10)
Various therapeutic regimes have been proposed with limited success for treatment of phosgene-induced acute lung injury (P-ALI). Corticoids were shown to be efficacious against chlorine-induced lung injury but there is still controversy whether this applies also to P-ALI. This study...
Wen-Li Li et al.
Inhalation toxicology, 23(13), 842-852 (2011-11-01)
The principal acute mode of action of inhaled phosgene gas is related to an increase alveolar fluid exudation under pathologic conditions. This paper considers some aspects in modeling phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in an acute rat bioassay and whether...
Y Juillet et al.
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 406(21), 5137-5145 (2014-05-13)
A new rapid, sensitive and reliable method was developed for the determination of phosgene in air samples using thermal desorption (TD) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method is based on a fast (10 min) active sampling of only...
Manish Gutch et al.
BMJ case reports, 2012, doi:10-doi:10 (2012-05-19)
Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which accidental exposure may occur in occupational workers. This case report describes the clinical presentation and management of accidental phosgene poisoning happened after the leakage of phosgene gas from nearby pipeline. The need...
[An accident of chloroethyl chloroformate poisoning].
Fei Li
Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases, 29(1), 38-38 (2011-05-31)
Nathanael J McKeown et al.
Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.), 50(3), 218-220 (2012-03-01)
We report a case of a worker who developed ALI requiring mechanical ventilatory support after attempting to melt ice condensate by applying the flame of an oxy-acetylene torch to refrigeration coils charged with a halocarbon refrigerant in a closed environment....
Keiji Yashio et al.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters, 22(1), 115-119 (2011-12-14)
The synthesis and in vivo evaluation of (11)C -labeled uric acid ([(11)C]1), a potential imaging agent for the diagnosis of urate-related life-style diseases, was performed using positron emission tomography (PET) image analysis. First, the synthesis of [(11)C]1 was achieved by...
Katsushi Kumata et al.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry, 20(1), 305-310 (2011-11-26)
Dantrolene (1) is a substrate for breast cancer resistant protein, which is widely distributed in the blood-brain-barrier, intestine, gall bladder, and liver. PET study with 1 labeled with a positron emitter can be used to visualize BCRP and to elucidate...
Rui Liu et al.
Scientific reports, 2, 813-813 (2012-12-12)
Identifying a critical transition and its leading biomolecular network during the initiation and progression of a complex disease is a challenging task, but holds the key to early diagnosis and further elucidation of the essential mechanisms of disease deterioration at...
Pradip Kundu et al.
Analytical chemistry, 84(10), 4594-4597 (2012-04-11)
Phosgene is a very toxic gas, which was used as a chemical weapon in World War I, and is currently widely used in industrial processes. So far, no any phosgene fluorescent sensor has been reported. In this study, we report...
Matthew Bancerz et al.
The Journal of organic chemistry, 77(5), 2415-2421 (2012-02-09)
A complementary approach to published synthetic methods for tetrazinanones, precursors to verdazyl radicals, is described herein. This approach uses carbohydrazide, a commercially available reagent, as a common starting material. Unlike previous methods described in the literature, this synthetic scheme does...
W F Diller
Archives of toxicology, 46(3-4), 199-206 (1980-12-01)
A thorough analysis of the pertinent literature leads to the conclusion that there is no justification for the use of methenamine (hexamethylene tetramin, Urotropin) for the therapy of phosgene poisoning.
S C Lim et al.
The Korean journal of internal medicine, 11(1), 87-92 (1996-01-01)
Phosgene (COCl2) is a colorless oxidant gas which is heavier than air and the lethal exposure dose (LC50) in humans is 500 ppm/min. This gas was originally manufactured as an agent for chemical warfare during World War I and there...
George D Leikauf et al.
American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology, 49(3), 368-383 (2013-04-18)
In this study, a genetically diverse panel of 43 mouse strains was exposed to phosgene and genome-wide association mapping performed using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assembly. Transcriptomic analysis was also used to improve the genetic resolution in the...
Hellmuth Lilienthal et al.
Toxicology, 327, 22-31 (2014-12-03)
Whereas the effects of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are well described, less is known about non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), including influences on the nervous system and related behavioral effects after developmental exposure. Following the examination of the highly purified NDL congeners...
O Gyllenhaal et al.
Journal of chromatography, 435(2), 259-269 (1988-01-08)
The use of phosgene as a derivatizing agent for bifunctional compounds prior to gas and liquid chromatographic analysis is reviewed. Applications include gas chromatographic determinations of metoprolol and its metabolites in biological fluids, enantiomeric separations of beta-blocking drugs and sympathomimetic...
Chiharu Asakawa et al.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters, 22(11), 3594-3597 (2012-05-02)
N-(2-{3-[3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)]phenylureido}ethyl)glycyrrhetinamide (2), an ureido-substituted derivative of glycyrrhetinic acid (1), has been reported to display potent inhibitory activity for proteasome and kinase, which are overexpressed in tumors. In this study, we labeled this unsymmetrical urea 2 using [(11)C]phosgene ([(11)C]COCl(2)) as a...
Junfeng Chen et al.
Inhalation toxicology, 27(5), 254-261 (2015-05-15)
Accidental phosgene exposure could result in acute lung injury (ALI), effective therapy is needed for the patients with phosgene-induced ALI. As a type of cells with therapeutic potential, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been showed its efficacy in multiple diseases....
D Matatagui et al.
Talanta, 85(3), 1442-1447 (2011-08-03)
An array of Love-wave sensors based on quartz and Novolac has been developed to detect chemical warfare agents (CWAs). These weapons are a risk for human health due to their efficiency and high lethality; therefore an early and clear detection...
J P Wyatt et al.
Journal of accident & emergency medicine, 12(3), 212-213 (1995-09-01)
Phosgene is a highly toxic gas to which some workers may be occupationally exposed. This case report demonstrates the possibility of refrigeration workers suffering phosgene poisoning after heating certain chlorinated fluorocarbons ('freons'). The need to suspect phosgene exposure and observe...
Lin-lin Zhang et al.
Zhongguo wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue = Chinese critical care medicine = Zhongguo weizhongbing jijiuyixue, 24(2), 116-119 (2012-02-10)
To investigate the clinical features and treatment strategy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by phosgene. Individualized therapy was carried out in 17 cases of severe phosgene poison patients. Blood routine, electrolytes, blood gas analysis, hepatic and renal function...
Christopher Grainge et al.
Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.), 48(6), 497-508 (2010-09-21)
Phosgene is a substance of immense importance in the chemical industry. Because of its widespread industrial use, there is potential for small-scale exposures within the workplace, large-scale accidental release, or even deliberate release into a built-up area. This review aims...
Peng Wang et al.
Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie, 65(3), 311-318 (2011-10-28)
The mechanism of phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains unclear and it is still lack of effective treatments. Previous study indicated that oxidative stress was involved in phosgene-induced ALI. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has been proved to be an...
Xuanjun Wu et al.
Chemical communications (Cambridge, England), 48(13), 1895-1897 (2012-01-10)
A highly sensitive chemodosimeter was identified from a panel of rhodamine derivatives for rapid and visual detection of phosgene with a detection limit of 50 nM triphosgene. Visual detection of gaseous phosgene with chemodosimeter absorbed paper strips was demonstrated.
Dana Glass et al.
Inhalation toxicology, 21 Suppl 3, 73-94 (2009-10-16)
The Provisional Advisory Level (PAL) protocol was applied to estimate inhalation exposure limits for phosgene (CG). Three levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations...
Timothy J Herdendorf et al.
Biochemistry, 53(35), 5647-5660 (2014-08-20)
Spontaneous double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most deleterious forms of DNA damage, and their improper repair can lead to cellular dysfunction. The Mre11 and Rad50 proteins, a nuclease and an ATPase, respectively, form a well-conserved complex that is...
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