The conductivity of organic semiconductors can be increased, and the barriers to charge-carrier injection from other materials can be reduced, by the use of highly reducing or oxidizing species to n- or p-dope, respectively, the semiconductor.
Copper metal deposition processes are an essential tool for depositing interconnects used in microelectronic applications, giving group 11 (coinage metals: Copper, Silver, and Gold) an important place in atomic layer deposition (ALD) process development.
Spin-based electronic (spintronic) devices offer significant improvement to the limits of conventional charge-based memory and logic devices which suffer from high power usage, leakage current, performance saturation, and device complexity.
The production of hydrogen by catalytic water splitting is important for a wide range of industries including renewable energy petroleum refining and for the production of methanol and ammonia in the chemical industry.
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