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James B Y H Behrendorff et al.
Chemical research in toxicology, 25(9), 1964-1974 (2012-08-21)
Cytochrome P450 2F1 (P450 2F1) is expressed exclusively in the human respiratory tract and is implicated in 3-methylindole (3MI)-induced pneumotoxicity via dehydrogenation of 3MI to a reactive electrophilic intermediate, 3-methyleneindolenine (3-MEI). Studies of P450 2F1 to date have been limited...
N Batorek et al.
Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, 6(8), 1330-1338 (2012-12-12)
Meta-analytical approach was used to quantitatively synthesize the effect of immunocastration on growth, carcass, meat quality, reproductive organs and boar taint compounds. Altogether, 41 papers were collected for effect size (θ) calculation and the comparisons were made with entire males...
Matthew A Gray et al.
The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology, 133, 110-119 (2012-10-04)
The accumulation of the testicular steroid androstenone (AND) and tryptophan degradation product skatole (3MI) in fat results in boar taint, an off odor and flavor in boar meat. Increasing boar taint metabolism in the liver may help limit the deposition...
V Kubale et al.
Theriogenology, 79(1), 69-80 (2012-10-30)
The producer of vaccine against GnRH recommends that immunocastrated pigs are to be slaughtered within 4 to 6 weeks after the second vaccination (V2). The objective of the study was to examine the effect of shorter or longer delay on...
K M Bekaert et al.
Meat science, 92(4), 382-385 (2012-06-06)
Three potential early-age predictors of which boars are likely to develop boar taint (testes volume, skin lesions and dirtiness) were measured on 102 boars every fortnight from 10 weeks of age until slaughter. These predictors were correlated with the level...
P Wiercinska et al.
Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, 6(5), 834-845 (2012-05-09)
Boar taint is the unfavourable odour and taste from pork fat, which results in part from the accumulation of skatole (3-methylindole, 3MI). The key enzymes in skatole metabolism are thought to be cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and cytochrome 2A (CYP2A);...
Daniel Mörlein et al.
Meat science, 91(4), 435-440 (2012-03-27)
The prevention of unpleasant boar taint is the main reason for castration of male piglets. For animal welfare reasons, castration is announced to be banned in the European Community. This study aimed to investigate whether androstenone, skatole and indole in...
Mechanisms of 3-methylindole pneumotoxicity.
G S Yost
Chemical research in toxicology, 2(5), 273-279 (1989-09-01)
Jesica Dadamio et al.
Journal of clinical periodontology, 39(7), 645-650 (2012-05-23)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a simple colorimetric chair side test detecting amines in saliva as an adjunct test in the oral malodour diagnosis. Non-stimulated saliva samples were collected from 100 volunteers with different...
Akihiro Tai et al.
Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, 78(10), 1723-1730 (2014-10-03)
The antioxidative properties of ascorbigen, one of the major indole-derived compounds of Brassica vegetables, were systematically evaluated using multiple assay systems with comparison to the well-known antioxidants ascorbic acid and Trolox. We first performed assays using model radicals, DPPH radical...
J Wauters et al.
Food chemistry, 187, 120-129 (2015-05-16)
Boar taint is an off-odour occurring while heating meat or fat from boars. A method detecting the three compounds (androstenone, skatole and indole) simultaneously in blood would offer substantial advantages since it would allow monitoring the impact of rearing strategies....
Annie Robic et al.
Genetics, selection, evolution : GSE, 40(1), 129-143 (2007-12-22)
High levels of androstenone and skatole in fat tissues are considered the primary causes of boar taint, an unpleasant odour and flavour of the meat from non-castrated male pigs. The aim of this article is to review our current knowledge...
Nutrition and 3-methylindole-induced lung injury.
J R Carlson et al.
Advances in nutritional research, 5, 31-55 (1983-01-01)
Pascal Fuchsmann et al.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 63(34), 7511-7521 (2015-08-01)
To establish the odor profiles of three differently fabricated commercial Swiss Tilsit cheeses, analyses were conducted using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/pulsed flame photometric detection and gas chromatography-olfactometry to identify and quantitate volatile compounds. In addition, odor quality and...
CYP2E1 and its relation with boar taint in Belgian pig breeds.
M Schroyen et al.
Communications in agricultural and applied biological sciences, 77(1), 237-241 (2012-05-09)
B Marcos et al.
Meat science, 95(3), 688-693 (2012-11-28)
Expression of water soluble proteins of fresh pork Longissimus thoracis from 4 pure breed pigs (Duroc, Large White, Landrace, and Piétrain) was studied to identify candidate protein markers for meat quality. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) was used...
Hang Wang et al.
Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA, 31(2), 223-231 (2013-01-12)
Manure produced from confined animal farms can threaten public and environmental health if not managed properly. Herein, a full-scale commercial bioconversion operation in DeQing County, China for value-added swine manure reduction using house fly, Musca domestica L., larvae is reported....
Dawn Olson et al.
Journal of food science, 77(10), S356-S361 (2012-08-29)
Surgical castration has been long used to prevent consumers from experiencing taint in meat from male pigs, which is a large problem in the pig husbandry industry. Due to obvious animal welfare issues, the EU now wants an alternative for...
Youngja H Park et al.
Malaria journal, 14, 122-122 (2015-04-19)
Current available malaria diagnostic methods each have some limitations to meet the need for real-time and large-scale screening of asymptomatic and low density malaria infection at community level. It was proposed that malaria parasite-specific low molecular-weight metabolites could be used...
Saori Ishizaka et al.
Journal of equine science, 25(4), 65-72 (2015-01-06)
The effects of probiotics on horses are still controversial. The present study was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the ability of probiotics to improve intestinal conditions in adult horses. Fermented probiotics were administered to 10 healthy...
M Aluwé et al.
Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, 6(11), 1868-1877 (2012-06-22)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of various boar taint detection methods, measure the relationship between them and identify possible points of improvement for boar taint detection. The methods used to evaluate boar taint in the...
P K Mathur et al.
Meat science, 91(4), 414-422 (2012-03-23)
A system for sensory evaluation of boar taint was used to evaluate boar taint in fat samples from 6574 entire males. The term "human nose scoring" has been used to describe this system. The samples from each boar were heated...
Daniel Mörlein et al.
Meat science, 92(4), 739-744 (2012-07-17)
The prevention of unpleasant boar taint is the main reason for castration of male piglets. This study aimed to investigate how the malodorous compound skatole is affected by a single nucleotide polymorphism (g.2412 C>T at -586 ATG) in the porcine...
M Čandek-Potokar et al.
Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997), 204(2), 162-167 (2015-04-22)
The effect of adding hydrolysable tannins to the diet of fattening boars was studied. Performance, reproductive organ weights, salivary gland morphology, boar taint compounds and skatole metabolism were evaluated. At 123 days of age and 52 ± 6 kg liveweight, 24 Landrace × Large White...
C Baes et al.
Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, 7(5), 714-720 (2012-12-06)
Genetically reducing boar taint using low-taint lines is considered the most sustainable and economic long-term alternative to surgical castration of male pigs. Owing to the high heritability of the main boar taint components (androstenone, skatole and indole), breeding is an...
Maria Font-i-Furnols
Meat science, 92(4), 319-329 (2012-06-12)
Boar taint can be found in meat from boars and affects consumer acceptability of pork. The aim of this review is: (1) to describe different aspects of the existing methodologies used in consumer studies when evaluating boar taint from a...
T M Bray et al.
Pharmacology & therapeutics, 46(1), 105-118 (1990-01-01)
3-Methylindole (3MI), an abnormal metabolite of tryptophan, causes acute pulmonary edema and emphysema. 3MI toxicity is species-, tissue- and cell-specific and is an excellent model for understanding the processes of chemically-induced lung injury. Experimental evidence showed that 3MI is metabolically...
Microbial metabolites of tryptophan in the intestinal tract with special reference to skatole.
M T Yokoyama et al.
The American journal of clinical nutrition, 32(1), 173-178 (1979-01-01)
Lisa Meier-Dinkel et al.
Meat science, 94(1), 19-26 (2013-01-30)
This study investigated the impact of assessors' varying olfactory acuity on the perceived intensity of androstenone and skatole odour and flavour in boar loins. To discriminate sensitive (SENS) and highly sensitive (SENSHIGH) panellists, two levels of androstenone were used on...
F Javier Benitez et al.
Water research, 47(2), 870-880 (2012-12-12)
The photolysis of five frequent emerging contaminants (Benzotriazole, Chlorophene, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET, Methylindole, and Nortriptyline HCl) was investigated in ultrapure water under monochromatic ultraviolet radiation at 254 nm and by a combination of UV and hydrogen peroxide. The results revealed...
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