Showing 1-30 of 108535 results for "neurons"
Paulina Borkowska et al.
Pharmacological reports : PR, 67(2), 179-186 (2015-02-26)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers. The aim of the current work was the differentiation rat MSCs into GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic cells. In this paper, we present differentiation cocktails with...
Charuni A Gunaratne et al.
The Journal of comparative neurology, 524(6), 1181-1192 (2015-09-12)
Phylogenetic comparisons of neurotransmitter distribution are important for understanding the ground plan organization of nervous systems. This study describes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in the buccal ganglia of six sea slug species (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Euthyneura, Nudipleura). In the...
Rachael A Powis et al.
Journal of anatomy, 228(3), 443-451 (2015-11-18)
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease characterised primarily by loss of lower motor neurons from the ventral grey horn of the spinal cord and proximal muscle atrophy. Recent experiments utilising mouse models of SMA have demonstrated that not...
D E Korzhevskii et al.
Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova, 117(4), 50-55 (2017-06-16)
To determine the cytochemical characteristics of unchanged neurons of the human substantia nigra using a wide range of immunocytochemical markers some of which (glutamate decarboxylase-65, PGP 9.5, non-phosphorylated neurofilament proteins, alpa-tubulin) have never been used for study of human dopaminergic...
Monica C Castellanos et al.
Development (Cambridge, England), 140(18), 3915-3926 (2013-08-29)
In Drosophila melanogaster, much of our understanding of sexually dimorphic neuronal development and function comes from the study of male behavior, leaving female behavior less well understood. Here, we identify a post-embryonic population of Insulin-like peptide 7 (Ilp7)-expressing neurons in...
Robert Egger et al.
Neuron, 105(1), 122-137 (2019-12-01)
Pyramidal tract neurons (PTs) represent the major output cell type of the mammalian neocortex. Here, we report the origins of the PTs' ability to respond to a broad range of stimuli with onset latencies that rival or even precede those...
Juhyun Kim et al.
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 37(37), 9037-9053 (2017-08-20)
Cell type-specific changes in neuronal excitability have been proposed to contribute to the selective degeneration of corticospinal neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to neocortical hyperexcitability, a prominent feature of both inherited and sporadic variants of the disease, but...
Xiaolai Zhou et al.
Journal of neurochemistry, 134(1), 125-134 (2015-04-02)
Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation has been reported as a common feature of familial and sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), and a growing body of evidence indicates that onset and progression of PD correlates with the extent of neuroinflammatory responses involving Interferon...
Suman Kumar et al.
BMC evolutionary biology, 20(1), 117-117 (2020-09-16)
Nervous system development is an interplay of many processes: the formation of individual neurons, which depends on whole-body and local patterning processes, and the coordinated growth of neurites and synapse formation. While knowledge of neural patterning in several animal groups...
Inês M A Ribeiro et al.
Cell, 174(3), 607-621 (2018-07-24)
Many animals rely on vision to detect, locate, and track moving objects. In Drosophila courtship, males primarily use visual cues to orient toward and follow females and to select the ipsilateral wing for courtship song. Here, we show that the...
Kimberly L McArthur et al.
Current biology : CB, 27(12), 1746-1756 (2017-06-13)
The location of neurons early in development can be critical for their ability to differentiate and receive normal synaptic inputs. Indeed, disruptions in neuronal positioning lead to a variety of neurological disorders. Neurons have, however, shifted their positions across phylogeny...
Juan Antonio Moreno-Bravo et al.
Development (Cambridge, England), 145(2) (2018-01-19)
During the development of the central nervous system (CNS), only motor axons project into peripheral nerves. Little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control the development of a boundary at the CNS surface and prevent CNS neuron...
Dieter Janzen et al.
Advanced healthcare materials, 9(9), e1901630-e1901630 (2020-03-18)
Impairments in neuronal circuits underly multiple neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. 3D cell culture models enhance the complexity of in vitro systems and provide a microenvironment closer to the native situation than with 2D cultures. Such novel model systems will allow...
Daniel E Wilson et al.
Neuron, 93(5), 1058-1065 (2017-03-11)
Functional circuits in the visual cortex require the coordinated activity of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Molecular genetic approaches in the mouse have led to the "local non-specific pooling principle" of inhibitory connectivity, in which inhibitory neurons are untuned for stimulus...
Hany El Sayed Marei et al.
Journal of cellular physiology, 233(2), 936-945 (2017-04-04)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can differentiate into various cell types such as cartilage, bone, and fat cells. Recent studies have shown that induction of MSCs in vitro by growth factors including epidermal growth factor (EGF) and...
Martin Graf et al.
eNeuro, 7(4) (2020-06-13)
Although its dense connections with other brain areas suggests that the claustrum is involved in higher-order brain functions, little is known about the properties of claustrum neurons. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings in acute brain slices of mice, we characterized...
Thomas Steinkellner et al.
eNeuro, 6(4) (2019-08-02)
Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) mediate the synaptic uptake of glutamate from the cytosol into synaptic vesicles and are considered unambiguous neurochemical markers of glutamate neurons. However, many neurons not classically thought of as glutamatergic also express a VGLUT and co-release...
Hiroshi Nango et al.
Cells, 9(7) (2020-07-28)
Motor neuron diseases are a group of progressive neurological disorders that degenerate motor neurons. The neuroblastoma × spinal cord hybrid cell line NSC-34 is widely used as an experimental model in studies of motor neuron diseases. However, the differentiation efficiency...
Irene Sanchez-Brualla et al.
Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007), 301(10), 1638-1645 (2018-05-02)
Minocycline has been reported to be both beneficial and detrimental for nerve regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. By reducing the inflammatory response, minocycline administration reduces pain and has neuroprotective effects, but it also inhibits Wallerian degeneration in the distal stump...
Xiaolei Han et al.
Neuroscience letters, 642, 59-65 (2017-02-01)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative brain disorder characterized by aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, formation of neurofibrillary tangles, synaptic loss, and neuronal cell death; however, the characteristic pathological alterations taking place in the "second brain"-enteric nervous system is...
Nathalie Boutros et al.
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology, 18(2) (2015-01-24)
Binge drinking is prevalent during adolescence and may have effects on the adult brain and behavior. The present study investigated whether adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure alters adult risky choice and prefrontal dopaminergic and forebrain cholinergic neuronal marker levels in male...
Jamal Nourinezhad et al.
Folia histochemica et cytobiologica, 55(4), 221-229 (2018-01-04)
Greater splanchnic nerve (GSN) is by far the largest of the splanchnic nerves and connects the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia to transmit the majority of nociceptive information from the viscera. Despite its importance, the immunohistochemical features of the porcine GSN...
Na-Hyun Kim et al.
Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 447(1), 205-209 (2014-04-08)
Major pelvic ganglia (MPG) are relay centers for autonomic reflexes such as micturition and penile erection. MPG innervate the urogenital system, including bladder. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, and may also...
Niroch Nawzad Aubid et al.
Journal of veterinary science, 20(2), e3-e3 (2019-04-05)
The development of long-term surviving fetal cell cultures from primary cell tissue from the developing brain is important for facilitating studies investigating neural development and for modelling neural disorders and brain congenital defects. The field faces current challenges in co-culturing...
R J Taugher et al.
Genes, brain, and behavior, 16(8), 745-755 (2017-06-29)
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) have been implicated in fear-, addiction- and depression-related behaviors in mice. While these effects have been attributed to ASIC1A in neurons, it has been reported that ASICs may also function in nonneuronal cells. To determine if...
Lihua Zhou et al.
Pesticide biochemistry and physiology, 165, 104547-104547 (2020-05-04)
Pesticide residue is a common problem worldwide. Cypermethrin is a type II pyrethroid pesticide that has been widely used in recent years. It has become a widespread residual pesticide in the environment and agricultural products. The neurotoxicity of cypermethrin remains...
Siew H Yip et al.
Cell reports, 26(7), 1787-1799 (2019-02-14)
Altered physiological states require neuronal adaptation. In late pregnancy and lactation, a sub-population of the mouse hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons alters their behavior to synthesize and release met-enkephalin rather than dopamine. These neurons normally release dopamine to inhibit prolactin...
Eugenia Saiz-Bianco et al.
Neuropeptides, 74, 70-81 (2019-01-16)
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide present in neurons located in the hypothalamus that densely innervate serotonergic cells in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). MCH administration into the DRN induces a depressive-like effect through a serotonergic mechanism. To further understand...
Kevin Glaesel et al.
International journal of molecular sciences, 21(11) (2020-06-03)
The wide-ranging influence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) within the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS), for example through effects on axonal growth or neuronal cell survival, is mainly mediated by VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). However, the regulation...
Hiromi Kumamaru et al.
Cell reports, 26(9), 2329-2339 (2019-02-28)
Neural progenitor cell grafts form new relays across sites of spinal cord injury (SCI). Using a panel of neuronal markers, we demonstrate that spinal neural progenitor grafts to sites of rodent SCI adopt diverse spinal motor and sensory interneuronal fates...

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