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E Collyer et al.
Experimental neurology, 261, 451-461 (2014-08-01)
After an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), partial recovery of locomotion is accomplished with time. Previous studies have established a functional link between extension of axon collaterals from spared spinal tracts and locomotor recovery after SCI, but the tissular signals
Stephanie May et al.
Acta neuropathologica, 128(4), 485-503 (2014-08-15)
Hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most common pathogenic mutation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Despite the lack of an ATG start codon, the repeat expansion is translated in all reading frames
Christopher Patzke et al.
The Journal of experimental medicine, 213(4), 499-515 (2016-03-24)
Hundreds of L1CAM gene mutations have been shown to be associated with congenital hydrocephalus, severe intellectual disability, aphasia, and motor symptoms. How such mutations impair neuronal function, however, remains unclear. Here, we generated human embryonic stem (ES) cells carrying a
Munjal M Acharya et al.
Cell transplantation, 23(10), 1255-1266 (2013-07-23)
Treatment of central nervous system (CNS) malignancies typically involves radiotherapy to forestall tumor growth and recurrence following surgical resection. Despite the many benefits of cranial radiotherapy, survivors often suffer from a wide range of debilitating and progressive cognitive deficits. Thus
Tatyana Kanyshkova et al.
Molecular and cellular neurosciences, 61, 110-122 (2014-06-11)
The polygenic origin of generalized absence epilepsy results in dysfunction of ion channels that allows the switch from physiological asynchronous to pathophysiological highly synchronous network activity. Evidence from rat and mouse models of absence epilepsy indicates that altered Ca(2+) channel
Sabina Eigenbrod et al.
Acta neurochirurgica, 156(8), 1427-1440 (2014-05-06)
In gliomas molecular biomarkers are increasingly gaining diagnostic, prognostic and predictive significance. Determination of biomarker status after biopsy is important as not all patients are eligible for open tumor resection. We developed and validated prospectively (6/10-12/11) a protocol allowing for
Lei Wang et al.
Transplantation, 97(12), 1225-1232 (2014-04-11)
Recent studies provide solid evidence for the importance to delineate the combined transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) and olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) for the repair of central nervous system injury. One of the limitations of this approach is that
Laurie H Sanders et al.
Neurobiology of disease, 70, 214-223 (2014-07-02)
DNA damage can cause (and result from) oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment, both of which are implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). We therefore examined the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in human postmortem brain tissue and
Egle Cekanaviciute et al.
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 193(1), 139-149 (2014-05-27)
The balance between controlling infection and limiting inflammation is particularly precarious in the brain because of its unique vulnerability to the toxic effects of inflammation. Astrocytes have been implicated as key regulators of neuroinflammation in CNS infections, including infection with
Yu Okuma et al.
Neuropharmacology, 85, 18-26 (2014-05-27)
Glycyrrhizin (GL) is a major constituent of licorice root and has been suggested to inhibit the release of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a protein considered representative of damage-associated molecular patterns. We found that GL bound HMGB1 but not RAGE
Hong-Jun Kang et al.
Cancer research, 74(16), 4526-4535 (2014-06-18)
The oncogenic fusion gene EWS-WT1 is the defining chromosomal translocation in desmoplastic small round-cell tumors (DSRCT), a rare but aggressive soft tissue sarcoma with a high rate of mortality. EWS-WT1 functions as an aberrant transcription factor that drives tumorigenesis, but
Hao Ren et al.
Biomaterials, 35(24), 6585-6594 (2014-05-09)
The cell-cycle inhibitor flavopiridol has been shown to improve recovery from spinal cord injury in animal models. However, the systemic dose of flavopiridol has side-effects and the mechanism of action is not clear. This study aimed to develop a strategy
Juan A Araya et al.
Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD, 42(1), 143-155 (2014-05-16)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and neurodegenerative disorder and one of the current therapies involves strengthening the cholinergic tone in central synapses. Neuroprotective properties for nicotine have been described in AD, through its actions on nicotinic receptors and the
Edmund Nesti et al.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(37), E3929-E3936 (2014-09-10)
The repressor element 1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor (REST) in stem cells represses hundreds of genes essential to neuronal function. During neurogenesis, REST is degraded in neural progenitors to promote subsequent elaboration of a mature neuronal phenotype. Prior studies indicate
Neuroprotective effects of Asiaticoside.
Qi FY, Yang L, Tian Z, et al.
Neural Regeneration Research, 9(13), 1275-1282 (2014)
Jeffrey T Joseph et al.
Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology, 73(11), 1009-1025 (2014-10-08)
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia is a group of severe developmental disorders with prenatal onset affecting the growth and function of the brainstem and cerebellum. The rarity and genetic heterogeneity of this group of disorders can make molecular diagnosis challenging. We report 3
Zhenglin Gu et al.
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 34(41), 13614-13628 (2014-10-10)
Degeneration of basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons is one of the early pathological events in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is thought to be responsible for the cholinergic and cognitive deficits in AD. The functions of this group of neurons are
Nguyen Huy Binh et al.
Neurological research, 36(9), 804-813 (2014-03-14)
Oxygen tension is an important component of microenvironment for the differentiation of embryonic stem cells including neural lineage. However, the comprehensive influence of hypoxia on neural differentiation during embryonic neural development has not yet been examined. In this study, we
Daniel B L Teh et al.
Development, growth & differentiation, 56(8), 583-594 (2014-10-07)
In the adult hippocampus, new neurons are continuously generated and incorporated into the local circuitry in a manner dependent on the network activity. Depolarization evoked by neurotransmitters has been assumed to activate L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCC) which regulate the intracellular
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