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Saori Ishizaka et al.
Journal of equine science, 25(4), 65-72 (2015-01-06)
The effects of probiotics on horses are still controversial. The present study was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the ability of probiotics to improve intestinal conditions in adult horses. Fermented probiotics were administered to 10 healthy...
M Aluwé et al.
Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, 6(11), 1868-1877 (2012-06-22)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of various boar taint detection methods, measure the relationship between them and identify possible points of improvement for boar taint detection. The methods used to evaluate boar taint in the...
P K Mathur et al.
Meat science, 91(4), 414-422 (2012-03-23)
A system for sensory evaluation of boar taint was used to evaluate boar taint in fat samples from 6574 entire males. The term "human nose scoring" has been used to describe this system. The samples from each boar were heated...
Daniel Mörlein et al.
Meat science, 92(4), 739-744 (2012-07-17)
The prevention of unpleasant boar taint is the main reason for castration of male piglets. This study aimed to investigate how the malodorous compound skatole is affected by a single nucleotide polymorphism (g.2412 C>T at -586 ATG) in the porcine...
M Čandek-Potokar et al.
Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997), 204(2), 162-167 (2015-04-22)
The effect of adding hydrolysable tannins to the diet of fattening boars was studied. Performance, reproductive organ weights, salivary gland morphology, boar taint compounds and skatole metabolism were evaluated. At 123 days of age and 52 ± 6 kg liveweight, 24 Landrace × Large White...
C Baes et al.
Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, 7(5), 714-720 (2012-12-06)
Genetically reducing boar taint using low-taint lines is considered the most sustainable and economic long-term alternative to surgical castration of male pigs. Owing to the high heritability of the main boar taint components (androstenone, skatole and indole), breeding is an...
Maria Font-i-Furnols
Meat science, 92(4), 319-329 (2012-06-12)
Boar taint can be found in meat from boars and affects consumer acceptability of pork. The aim of this review is: (1) to describe different aspects of the existing methodologies used in consumer studies when evaluating boar taint from a...
T M Bray et al.
Pharmacology & therapeutics, 46(1), 105-118 (1990-01-01)
3-Methylindole (3MI), an abnormal metabolite of tryptophan, causes acute pulmonary edema and emphysema. 3MI toxicity is species-, tissue- and cell-specific and is an excellent model for understanding the processes of chemically-induced lung injury. Experimental evidence showed that 3MI is metabolically...
Microbial metabolites of tryptophan in the intestinal tract with special reference to skatole.
M T Yokoyama et al.
The American journal of clinical nutrition, 32(1), 173-178 (1979-01-01)
Lisa Meier-Dinkel et al.
Meat science, 94(1), 19-26 (2013-01-30)
This study investigated the impact of assessors' varying olfactory acuity on the perceived intensity of androstenone and skatole odour and flavour in boar loins. To discriminate sensitive (SENS) and highly sensitive (SENSHIGH) panellists, two levels of androstenone were used on...
F Javier Benitez et al.
Water research, 47(2), 870-880 (2012-12-12)
The photolysis of five frequent emerging contaminants (Benzotriazole, Chlorophene, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET, Methylindole, and Nortriptyline HCl) was investigated in ultrapure water under monochromatic ultraviolet radiation at 254 nm and by a combination of UV and hydrogen peroxide. The results revealed...
Andrew W McMillan et al.
The journal of physical chemistry. B, 117(6), 1790-1809 (2013-01-22)
The quantum yield of tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence was measured in 30 designed miniproteins (17 β-hairpins and 13 Trp-cage peptides), each containing a single Trp residue. Measurements were made in D(2)O and H(2)O to distinguish between fluorescence quenching mechanisms involving electron...
Kimiko Fukuoka et al.
Biodegradation, 26(5), 359-373 (2015-07-02)
3-Methylindole, also referred to as skatole, is a pollutant of environmental concern due to its persistence, mobility and potential health impacts. Petroleum refining, intensive livestock production and application of biosolids to agricultural lands result in releases of 3-methylindole to the...
Lisa Meier-Dinkel et al.
Meat science, 93(2), 248-256 (2012-10-06)
This study aimed to assess the influence of two label conditions on the acceptance of boar meat. A central location test was conducted with 145 consumers each assessing 4 pieces of pork loin. Samples varied with respect to two factors:...
K M Bekaert et al.
Meat science, 94(1), 125-132 (2013-02-14)
No automated detection system for boar taint detection is currently available, thus boar taint at the slaughterline can currently only be assessed using the singeing method (olfactory scoring). This study compares several heating methods (microwave, soldering iron and pyropen) and...
Isabella Karlsson et al.
Photochemistry and photobiology, 88(4), 904-912 (2012-03-21)
Octocrylene is an organic UV filter, commonly used in sunscreens and cosmetics, which can give rise to both contact and photocontact allergy. Our aim was to investigate octocrylene's interaction with amino acid analogs in the presence of UV radiation to...
S G Vhile et al.
Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, 6(5), 807-814 (2012-05-09)
Different levels of dried Jerusalem artichoke were fed to entire male pigs 1 week before slaughter. The objective was to investigate the effect on skatole level in the hindgut and in adipose tissue, as well as the effect on microflora...
Hyo Yeol Kim et al.
American journal of rhinology & allergy, 26(2), e81-e84 (2012-04-11)
Despite the importance of olfactory function, no effective medications have been identified to treat olfactory disorders. This study was performed to evaluate the functional recovery of olfaction damaged by 3-methylindole (3MI) in a mouse model with hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors...
Putative mechanisms of toxicity of 3-methylindole: from free radical to pneumotoxicosis.
T M Bray et al.
Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology, 34, 91-115 (1994-01-01)
U Weiler et al.
Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, 7(2), 300-308 (2012-10-04)
Feed intake behavior was studied between 9 weeks of age and slaughter in a total of 36 gilts, 32 immunocastrates, 33 surgically castrated barrows and 33 boars from 36 litters. Consequences for the concentration of substances contributing to off odor...
Md Mahmudur Rahman et al.
Journal of chromatography. A, 1314, 241-248 (2013-09-28)
An experimental technique based on sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatography (ST-TD-GC) was investigated for the simultaneous determination of a cluster of eight volatile odorants (propionic acid, n-butyric acid, i-valeric acid, n-valeric acid, trimethylamine, phenol, indole, and skatole) and a reference compound...
Jochen Fischer et al.
Food chemistry, 135(4), 2128-2132 (2012-09-18)
The major boar taint compounds androstenone and skatole as well as the minor compounds indole, 3α-androstenol and 3β-androstenol were determined in back fat samples of 23 male wild boars by applying a recently published SIDA-HS-SPME-GC/MS method. The boar pheromones androstenone...
K M Bekaert et al.
Meat science, 92(4), 382-385 (2012-06-06)
Three potential early-age predictors of which boars are likely to develop boar taint (testes volume, skin lesions and dirtiness) were measured on 102 boars every fortnight from 10 weeks of age until slaughter. These predictors were correlated with the level...
P Wiercinska et al.
Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, 6(5), 834-845 (2012-05-09)
Boar taint is the unfavourable odour and taste from pork fat, which results in part from the accumulation of skatole (3-methylindole, 3MI). The key enzymes in skatole metabolism are thought to be cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and cytochrome 2A (CYP2A);...
Matthew A Gray et al.
The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology, 133, 110-119 (2012-10-04)
The accumulation of the testicular steroid androstenone (AND) and tryptophan degradation product skatole (3MI) in fat results in boar taint, an off odor and flavor in boar meat. Increasing boar taint metabolism in the liver may help limit the deposition...
Daniel Mörlein et al.
Meat science, 91(4), 435-440 (2012-03-27)
The prevention of unpleasant boar taint is the main reason for castration of male piglets. For animal welfare reasons, castration is announced to be banned in the European Community. This study aimed to investigate whether androstenone, skatole and indole in...
Walter S Leal et al.
PloS one, 3(8), e3045-e3045 (2008-08-30)
Synthetic mosquito oviposition attractants are sorely needed for surveillance and control programs for Culex species, which are major vectors of pathogens causing various human diseases, including filariasis, encephalitis, and West Nile encephalomyelitis. We employed novel and conventional chemical ecology approaches...
V Kubale et al.
Theriogenology, 79(1), 69-80 (2012-10-30)
The producer of vaccine against GnRH recommends that immunocastrated pigs are to be slaughtered within 4 to 6 weeks after the second vaccination (V2). The objective of the study was to examine the effect of shorter or longer delay on...
Jesica Dadamio et al.
Journal of clinical periodontology, 39(7), 645-650 (2012-05-23)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of a simple colorimetric chair side test detecting amines in saliva as an adjunct test in the oral malodour diagnosis. Non-stimulated saliva samples were collected from 100 volunteers with different...
Mechanisms of 3-methylindole pneumotoxicity.
G S Yost
Chemical research in toxicology, 2(5), 273-279 (1989-09-01)
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