We performed a case-control study in children diagnosed by the first episode of upper urinary tract infection with or without vesicoureteral reflux to evaluate the association of functional polymorphism of interleukin-8 (-251A>T and +2767A>G), and its receptor CXCR1 (+2607G>C). Genomic DNA was obtained from 265 children with a clinical and laboratory diagnosis of urinary tract infection who were recruited in northeast Italy. The children were subdivided as 173 who were dimercapto-succinic acid scan positive with positive static renal scintigraphy in acute conditions, consistent with the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, and 92 who were dimercapto-succinic acid scan negative. Genetic analysis for the same polymorphisms was also extended to a control population of 106 umbilical cord DNA samples. Statistical analysis of genotype data showed that 1) the tested populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 2) there were significant differences between the dimercapto-succinic acid scan positive and negative groups (p=0.049), and the dimercapto-succinic acid scan positive group vs controls (p=0.032) in terms of interleukin-8 -251A>T polymorphism frequency, 3) there was also a significant difference in the distribution of IL-8 -251A>T and +2767A>G polymorphisms between dimercapto-succinic acid scan positive and negative children in the subgroup without vesicoureteral reflux (p=0.03 and 0.02, respectively) and 4) no significant differences were found in the frequency of the distribution of CXCR1 +2607G>C polymorphism in all groups. These data suggest that the gene for the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 is involved in susceptibility to acute pyelonephritis during upper urinary tract infection in children with or without vesicoureteral reflux.
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