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"Fooling fido"--chemical and behavioral studies of pseudo-explosive canine training aids.

Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry (2014-11-27)
William D Kranz, Nicholas A Strange, John V Goodpaster
ABSTRACT

Genuine explosive materials are traditionally employed in the training and testing of explosive-detecting canines so that they will respond reliably to these substances. However, challenges arising from the acquisition, storage, handling, and transportation of explosives have given rise to the development of "pseudo-explosive" training aids. These products attempt to emulate the odor of real explosives while remaining inert. Therefore, a canine trained on a pseudo-explosive should respond to its real-life analog. Similarly, a canine trained on an actual explosive should respond to the pseudo-explosive as if it was real. This research tested those assumptions with a focus on three explosives: single-base smokeless powder, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and a RDX-based plastic explosive (Composition C-4). Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid phase microextraction as a pre-concentration technique, we determined that the volatile compounds given off by pseudo-explosive products consisted of various solvents, known additives from explosive formulations, and common impurities present in authentic explosives. For example, simulated smokeless powders emitted terpenes, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, diphenylamine, and ethyl centralite. Simulated TNT products emitted 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene. Simulated C-4 products emitted cyclohexanone, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and dimethyldinitrobutane. We also conducted tests to determine whether canines trained on pseudo-explosives are capable of alerting to genuine explosives and vice versa. The results show that canines trained on pseudo-explosives performed poorly at detecting all but the pseudo-explosives they are trained on. Similarly, canines trained on actual explosives performed poorly at detecting all but the actual explosives on which they were trained.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 100 μm (PDMS), needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
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SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 30 μm (PDMS), needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
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SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 7 μm (PDMS), needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
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SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 100 μm (PDMS), for use with manual holder, needle size 23 ga
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SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating CAR/PDMS
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SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 7 μm (PDMS), needle size 24 ga, for use with autosampler
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SPME fiber assembly polyacrylate (PA), df 85 μm (PA), for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
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SPME fiber assembly polyacrylate (PA), df 85 μm (PA), for use with autosampler, needle size 24 ga
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SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating PDMS/DVB
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SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 100 μm (PDMS), for use with autosampler, needle size 24 ga
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SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating PDMS
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SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 30 μm (PDMS), needle size 24 ga, for use with autosampler
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SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 7 μm (PDMS), needle size 23 ga, for use with autosampler
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SPME fiber assembly polyacrylate (PA), df 85 μm (PA), for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga
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SPME-OC Fiber Assembly, Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 75 μm (Coating thickness includes 65 μm coating + 10 μm OC (overcoating)), needle size 23 ga, pkg of 3 ea, fiber L 1 cm
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SPME LC Tips, PDMS/DVB, pkg of 96 ea
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IonSense® C18 SPE-it Tips, pkg of 96 ea
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SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), metal alloy fiber, df 100 μm (PDMS), needle size 23 ga, for use with autosampler
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IonSense® PDMS/DVB SPE-it Tips, pkg of 96 ea
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SPME fiber assembly, Carbowax-Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Coating, needle size 23 ga, df 60 μm (PEG), metal alloy fiber, for use with manual holder
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SPME Fiber Assembly Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 65 μm (PDMS/DVB), for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga, metal alloy fiber
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SPME fiber assembly, Carbowax-Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Coating, needle size 23 ga, df 60 μm (PEG), for use with autosampler
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SPME Fiber Assembly Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 65 μm (PDMS/DVB), needle size 23 ga, PDMS/DVB StableFlex, for use with autosampler
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SPME fiber assortment kit 4, for use with autosampler, needle size 23 ga
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SPME fiber assortment kit 2, for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
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SPME fiber assortment kit 2, for use with autosampler, size 24 ga
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