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  • Monoclonal antibody higher order structure analysis by high throughput protein conformational array.

Monoclonal antibody higher order structure analysis by high throughput protein conformational array.

mAbs (2018-01-10)
Yuanli Song, Deqiang Yu, Mukesh Mayani, Nesredin Mussa, Zheng Jian Li
ABSTRACT

The elucidation of antibody higher order structure (HOS) is critical in therapeutic antibody development. Since HOS determines the protein bioactivity and chemo-physical properties, this knowledge can help to ensure that the safety and efficacy attributes are not compromised. Protein conformational array (PCA) is a novel method for determining the HOS of monoclonal antibodies. Previously, we successfully utilized an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based PCA along with other bioanalytical tools to elucidate the structures of antibody aggregates. In this study, applying a new multiplex-based PCA with 48-fold higher throughput than the ELISA-based one we revealed structural differences between different antibody molecules and antibody structure changes affected by various processing conditions. The PCA analysis of antibody molecules clearly demonstrated significant differences between IgG1 and IgG4 subclasses in epitope exposure and folding status. Furthermore, we applied small angle X-ray scattering to decipher mechanistic insights of PCA technology and validate structural information obtained using PCA. These findings enhance our fundamental understanding of mAbs' HOS in general. The PCA analysis of antibody samples from various processing conditions also revealed that antibody aggregation caused significantly higher exposure of antibody epitopes, which potentially led to a "foreign" molecule that could cause immunogenicity. The PCA data correlated well with protein stability results from traditional methods such as size-exclusion chromatography and protein thermal shift assay. Our study demonstrated that high throughput PCA is a suitable method for HOS analysis in the discovery and development of therapeutic antibodies.

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