Since the cost of Ophiocordyceps sinensis, an important fungal drug used in Chinese medicine, has increased dramatically, and the counterfeits may have adverse health effects, a rapid and precise marker using the peptide mass spectrometry identification system could significantly enhance the regulatory capacity. In this study, we determined the marker peptides in the digested mixtures of fungal proteins in wild O. sinensis fruiting bodies and various commercially available mycelium fermented powders using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometry coupled with chemometrics. The results indicated the following marker peptides: TLLEAIDSIEPPK (m/z 713.39) was identified in the wild O. sinensis fruiting body, AVLSDAITLVR (m/z 579.34) was detected in the fermented O. sinensis mycelium powder, FAELLEK (m/z 849.47) was found in the fermented Ophiocordyceps mycelium powder, LESVVTSFTK (m/z 555.80) was discovered in the artificial Ophiocordyceps mycelium powder, and VPSSAVLR (m/z 414.75) was observed in O. mortierella mycelium powder. In order to verify the specificity and applicability of the method, the five marker peptides were synthesized and tested on all samples. All in all, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that mass spectrometry has been employed to detect the marker peptides of O.sinensis and its related products.