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Peripheral Blood Plasma Clot as a Local Antimicrobial Drug Delivery Matrix.

Tissue engineering. Part A (2017-11-04)
Jan Gessmann, Dominik Seybold, Fahim Ayami, Elvira Peter, Hinnerk Baecker, Thomas Armin Schildhauer, Manfred Köller
ABSTRACT

Platelet-free blood plasma clots were loaded either with antibiotics (vancomycin, gentamicin, or linezolid) at concentrations of 5-300 μg/mL or with silver ions (silver acetate) at concentrations of 3.3-129 μg/mL. The release of antibiotics or silver from the clot matrix was analyzed after repeated immersion of the plasma clots using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) or atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The antimicrobial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus; tissue cell compatibility was analyzed using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Fibrin fiber thickness of the clots was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. While addition of linezolid and vancomycin did not significantly change the fibrin fiber thickness, gentamicin and silver ions led to an increase in fiber thickness. All antibiotics showed a concentration-dependent burst-like release from the plasma clots within 1 h followed by a general decay in elution. The release of vancomycin and gentamicin, or silver lasted up to 7 days (depending on initial concentrations), but lasted only up to 4 h for linezolid. A correlation (p < 0.0001) was noted between the concentration of released antibiotics analyzed by HPLC and antimicrobial activity (agar diffusion test). A decrease in antibacterial activity of gentamicin- and vancomycin-containing clots occurred within 4 or 5 days. In contrast, the corresponding antibacterial activity of plasma clots containing linezolid was limited to 3 h. Antibacterial activity of plasma clots containing silver at the highest concentrations decreased after day 3, but clots with lower concentrations induced incomplete bacterial lysis or displayed no antibacterial activity. The antibiotic-containing clots did not induce cytotoxic effects on the embedded hMSC in contrast to all clots containing silver. Our results indicate that an autologous plasma clot can be used to deliver antibiotics such as vancomycin and gentamicin in combination with hMSC and the antibacterial effects persist for days without inducing cytotoxic effects on the embedded stem cells.