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Smells from the desert: Microbial volatiles that affect plant growth and development of native and non-native plant species.

Plant, cell & environment (2018-11-01)
David A Camarena-Pozos, Víctor M Flores-Núñez, Mercedes G López, José López-Bucio, Laila P Partida-Martínez
ABSTRACT

The plant microbiota can affect host fitness via the emission of microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs) that influence growth and development. However, evidence of these molecules and their effects in plants from arid ecosystems is limited. We screened the mVOCs produced by 40 core and representative members of the microbiome of agaves and cacti in their interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. We used SPME-GC-MS to characterize the chemical diversity of mVOCs and tested the effects of selected compounds on growth and development of model and host plants. Our study revealed that approximately 90% of the bacterial strains promoted plant growth both in A. thaliana and N. benthamiana. Bacterial VOCs were mainly composed of esters, alcohols, and S-containing compounds with 25% of them not previously characterized. Remarkably, ethyl isovalerate, isoamyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, and some of their mixtures, displayed beneficial effects in A. thaliana and also improved growth and development of Agave tequilana and Agave salmiana in just 60 days. Volatiles produced by bacteria isolated from agaves and cacti are promising molecules for the sustainable production of crops in arid and semi-arid regions.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Benzyl alcohol, anhydrous, 99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Murashige and Skoog Basal Salt Mixture (MS), powder, suitable for plant cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
3-Methyl-1-butanol, anhydrous, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl benzoate, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Isoamyl acetate, natural, ≥97%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Phenethyl alcohol, natural, ≥99%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl isobutyrate, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl trisulfide, ≥98%, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Poly(dimethylsiloxane), viscosity 1.0 cSt (25 °C)
Sigma-Aldrich
2-Phenethyl acetate, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
3-(Methylthio)-1-propanol, ≥98%, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl isovalerate, ≥98%, FCC, FG
Supelco
SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)
Supelco
SPME Sampling Stand, for use with 15 mL vials
Supelco
Dimethyl trisulfide, analytical standard
Supelco
SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS)
Sigma-Aldrich
6-Benzylaminopurine hydrochloride, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
3-(Methylthio)-1-propanol, 98%
Supelco
SPME Portable Field Sampler, coating Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB)
Supelco
SPME fiber assortment kit 3
Supelco
SPME Sampling Stand, for use with 4 mL vials
Supelco
SPME/HPLC Interface, rheodyne valve version
Supelco
SPME FFA PTFE Sealing Cups, size 23ga Beveled (No line)
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), df 75 μm, for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS), needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly polyacrylate (PA), df 85 μm, for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), df 7 μm, needle size 24 ga, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME Fiber Assembly Polydimethylsiloxane/Divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), df 60 μm, for use with autosampler/HPLC, needle size 24 ga, StableFlex fiber
Supelco
SPME fiber assembly, Carbowax-Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Coating, needle size 23 ga, df 60 μm, metal alloy fiber, for use with manual holder
Supelco
SPME fiber assortment kit 1, for use with manual holder, needle size 24 ga

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