The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of insufficient light exposure on the polymerization of conventional and self-adhesive dual-cure resin cements under ceramic restorations. Two conventional dual-cure resin cements (Rely-X ARC, Duolink) and two self-adhesive resin cements (Rely-X U200, Maxcem Elite) were polymerized under different curing modes (dual-cure or self-cure), curing times (20 and 120 seconds), and thickness of a ceramic overlay (2 and 4 mm). Polymerization kinetics was measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for the initial 10 minutes and after 24 hours. Data were analyzed using mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA/Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test, and paired t-test (α=0.05). When light-curing time was set to 20 seconds, the presence of the ceramic block significantly affected the degree of conversion (DC) of all resin cements. Especially, the DC of the groups with 20 seconds of light-curing time under 4 mm of ceramic thickness was even lower than that of the self-cured groups at 24 hours after polymerization (p<0.05). However, when light-curing time was set to 120 seconds, a similar DC compared with the group with direct light exposure (p>0.05) was achieved in all dual-cure groups except Maxcem Elite, at 24 hours after polymerization. For both conventional and self-adhesive dual-cure resin cements, insufficient light exposure (20 seconds of light-curing time) through thick ceramic restoration (4 mm thick) resulted in a DC even lower than that of self-curing alone.