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Impact of differences in nutritional quality of wingless and winged aphids on parasitoid fitness.

The Journal of experimental biology (2018-09-13)
Jennifer A-L M Pirotte, Ange Lorenzi, Vincent Foray, Thierry Hance
ABSTRACT

Winged aphids are described as hosts of lesser quality for parasitoids because a part of their resources is used to produce wings and associated muscles during their development. Host lipid content is particularly important for parasitoid larvae as they lack lipogenesis and therefore rely entirely on the host for this resource. The goal of this study was to determine to what extent winged and wingless aphids differ from a nutritional point of view and whether these differences impact parasitoid fitness, notably the lipid content. We analysed the energetic budget (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) of aphids of different ages (third instars, fourth instars and adults) according to the morph (winged or wingless). We also compared fitness indicators for parasitoids emerging from winged and wingless aphids (third and fourth instars). We found that in third instars, parasitoids are able to inhibit wing development whereas this is not the case in fourth instars. Both winged instars allow the production of heavier and fattier parasitoids. The presence of wings in aphids seems to have little effect on the fitness of emerging parasitoids and did not modify female choice for oviposition. Finally, we demonstrate that Aphidius colemani, used as a biological control agent, is able to parasitize wingless as well as winged Myzus persicae, at least in the juvenile stages. If the parasitism occurs in third instars, the parasitoid will prevent the aphid from flying, which could in turn reduce virus transmission.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Phosphate buffered saline, powder, pH 7.4, for preparing 1 L solutions
Supelco
Bradford Reagent, for 0.1-1.4 mg/ml protein
Sigma-Aldrich
Vanillin, ReagentPlus®, 99%
Supelco
DL-Dithiothreitol solution, 1 M in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(+)-Glucose, BioXtra, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Anthrone, ACS reagent, 97%
SAFC
Hanks′ Balanced Salts, Without sodium bicarbonate, powder, suitable for cell culture
Triolein, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Glyceryl trioleate, ≥97.0% (TLC)