Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms due to the selective loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The evidence for a chronic inflammatory reaction mediated by microglial cells in the brain is particularly strong in PD. In our previous study, we have shown that brain-specific microRNA-124 (miR-124) is significantly down-regulated in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD and that it can also inhibit neuroinflammation during the development of PD. However, further investigation is required to understand whether the abnormal expression of miR-124 regulates microglial activation. In this study, we found that the expression of sequestosome 1 (p62) and phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p-p38) showed a significant increase in LPS-treated immortalized murine microglial cell line BV2 cells in an MPTP-induced mouse model of PD. Knockdown of p62 could suppress the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and p-p38 of microglia. Besides, inhibition of p38 suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and promoted autophagy in BV2 cells. Moreover, our study is the first to identify a unique role of miR-124 in mediating the microglial inflammatory response by targeting p62 and p38 in PD. In the microglial culture supernatant transfer model, the knockdown of p62 in BV2 cells prevented apoptosis and death of human neuroblastoma cell lines SH-SY5Y (SH-SY5Y) cells following microglia activation. In addition, the exogenous delivery of miR-124 could suppress p62 and p-p38 expression and could also attenuate the activation of microglia in the substantia nigra par compacta of MPTP-treated mice. Taken together, our data suggest that miR-124 could inhibit neuroinflammation during the development of PD by targeting p62, p38, and autophagy, indicating that miR-124 could be a potential therapeutic target for regulating the inflammatory response in PD.-Yao, L., Zhu, Z., Wu, J., Zhang, Y., Zhang, H., Sun, X., Qian, C., Wang, B., Xie, L., Zhang, S., Lu, G. MicroRNA-124 regulates the expression of p62/p38 and promotes autophagy in the inflammatory pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.