The present study examined the cytotoxicity and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) distribution of cancer-targeted, MRI-visible polymeric micelles that encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and are conjugated with glucose as a targeting ligand. In this study, the micelles were investigated the clinical potential of glucose-micelles, in vitro cytotoxicity assays of nonencapsulating or SPIO-and-DOX-coencapsulating micelles were performed on L929 mouse fibroblasts, and we found that glucose-micelles did not exert in vitro cytotoxic effects. Next, in vitro MRI detectability of glucose SPIO micelles was evaluated at the loaded SPIO content of 2.5% and 50%, and it was found that glucose-micelles can increase MRI relaxivity (r2*) at high SPIO loading. Furthermore, 50% SPIO micelles persisted in the blood circulation for up to 5 days (slow liver clearance) as determined by in vivo MRI. For in vivo toxicity evaluation, 50% SPIO/DOX micelles at a dose up to 18 (mg DOX)/(kg body weight) showed no impact on animal health according to clinical chemistry and clinical hematology laboratory testing. Altogether, these results indicate that glucose-micelles can serve as an effective and safe drug delivery system.