New therapies are needed to treat chronic bacterial diseases and intracellular pathogens, in particular, are very difficult to manage. The use of nanotherapeutics represents an approach to exploit size and charge of biological membranes to overcome barriers for treatment of intracellular pathogens including Brucella melitensis. In this work, polyanhydride nanoparticles comprised of copolymers of sebacic acid, 1,6-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)hexane, and 1,8-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)-3,6-dioxaoctane were synthesized to encapsulate antimicrobial compounds doxycycline and rifampicin. The nanoparticles demonstrated sustained release of rifampicin for a week with the antimicrobial activity peaking at 72 h and lasting up to a week. Treatment of B. melitensis infected macrophages with rifampicin-containing nanoparticles rapidly eliminated viable intracellular bacteria following 48 h of treatment and pretreatment with the nano-formulations prevented intracellular infection in contrast to soluble drug controls. Treatment of infected BALB/c mice with a nanoparticle cocktail containing doxycycline and rifampicin for five days decreased bacterial burden by three log10 in the liver. Extended release of antibiotics was demonstrated in vivo by treating B. melitensis infected mice with the standard therapy of daily 0.5 mg doxycycline dose or single 0.5 mg doxycycline-encapsulated nanoparticles delivered once a week. After 3 weeks, bacterial counts in spleen and liver were statistically equal between animals treated with the weekly nano-formulation and daily soluble drug, representing a seven-fold dose sparing. Altogether, these results demonstrated that the use of nanotherapeutics was successful at increasing antimicrobial efficacy and improving in vivo activity through a combination of intracellular delivery, dose sparing, and extended release in treating chronic bacterial infections. This platform technology can also provide benefits for drug delivery against other chronic intracellular bacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium and Burkholderia species, including treatments against antibiotic-resistant infections.