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Characterization of dried and freeze-dried sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum L.) samples with headspace gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry and evaluation of an electronic nose discrimination potential.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.) (2019-01-03)
Pasquale Giungato, Massimiliano Renna, Roberto Rana, Sabina Licen, Pierluigi Barbieri
ABSTRACT

Processed samples (air-dried @ 40 and @ 60 °C and freeze-dried) of sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum L.), an autochthonous spice with interesting market potential, were analyzed by headspace gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry and classification capabilities of an electronic nose in discriminating between samples with stepwise forward statistics were evaluated as well. Freeze-drying process was the most preservative in terms of limiting darkening without compromising appearance of the final product, providing weight loss of about 85% and water activity below the limit for mold growth issues. Headspace analysis of samples highlighted the presence of 35 volatiles grouped as terpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated terpenes, sesquiterpen hydrocarbons, phenyl propanoids, not-terpenic aldehydes and not-terpenic ketones. Correlations emerged between selected sensors and some detected volatile organic compounds. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis and simple K-nearest neighbors obtained a 100% overall correct classification rate in cross-validation of the electronic nose in classifying samples, whereas stepwise quadratic discriminant analysis and Naive-Bayes gave 93.3%. The sea fennel could be a new interesting spice to launch in the food market and the electronic nose showed the potential to be used in monitoring the industrial process aimed at extending its shelf-life.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Poly(dimethylsiloxane), viscosity 1.0 cSt (25 °C)
Supelco
Sabinene hydrate, analytical standard

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