Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have attracted considerable attention in biomedical and environmental applications due to their antimicrobial activity. In the interest of investigating the primary antimicrobial mode-of-action of 2D nanomaterials, we studied the antimicrobial properties of MnO2 and MoS2, toward Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacteria were treated individually with 100 μg/mL of randomly oriented and vertically aligned nanomaterials for ∼3 h in the dark. The vertically aligned 2D MnO2 and MoS2 were grown on 2D sheets of graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, and Ti3C2 MXene. Measurements to determine the viability of bacteria in the presence of the 2D nanomaterials performed by using two complementary techniques, flow cytometry, and fluorescence imaging showed that, while MnO2 and MoS2 nanosheets show different antibacterial activities, in both cases, Gram-positive bacteria show a higher loss in membrane integrity. Scanning electron microscopy images suggest that the 2D nanomaterials, which have a detrimental effect on bacteria viability, compromise the cell wall, leading to significant morphological changes. We propose that the peptidoglycan mesh (PM) in the bacterial wall is likely the primary target of the 2D nanomaterials. Vertically aligned 2D MnO2 nanosheets showed the highest antimicrobial activity, suggesting that the edges of the nanosheets were likely compromising the cell walls upon contact.
Research. Development. Production.
We are a leading supplier to the global Life Science industry with solutions and services for research, biotechnology development and production, and pharmaceutical drug therapy development and production.