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Rat Glioma Cell-Based Functional Characterization of Anti-Stress and Protein Deaggregation Activities in the Marine Carotenoids, Astaxanthin and Fucoxanthin.

Marine drugs (2019-03-27)
Sajal Afzal, Sukant Garg, Yoshiyuki Ishida, Keiji Terao, Sunil C Kaul, Renu Wadhwa
ABSTRACT

Stress, protein aggregation, and loss of functional properties of cells have been shown to contribute to several deleterious pathologies including cancer and neurodegeneration. The incidence of these pathologies has also been shown to increase with age and are often presented as evidence to the cumulative effect of stress and protein aggregation. Prevention or delay of onset of these diseases may prove to be unprecedentedly beneficial. In this study, we explored the anti-stress and differentiation-inducing potential of two marine bioactive carotenoids (astaxanthin and fucoxanthin) using rat glioma cells as a model. We found that the low (nontoxic) doses of both protected cells against UV-induced DNA damage, heavy metal, and heat-induced protein misfolding and aggregation of proteins. Their long-term treatment in glioma cells caused the induction of physiological differentiation into astrocytes. These phenotypes were supported by upregulation of proteins that regulate cell proliferation, DNA damage repair mechanism, and glial differentiation, suggesting their potential for prevention and treatment of stress, protein aggregation, and age-related pathologies.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-Neurofilament 200 antibody produced in rabbit, IgG fraction of antiserum, buffered aqueous solution
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein antibody produced in rabbit, IgG fraction of antiserum, buffered aqueous solution
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-MAP2 antibody produced in rabbit, ~1 mg/mL, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous solution
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-HP1γ Antibody, clone 42s2, clone 42s2, Upstate®, from mouse
Supelco
Fucoxanthin solution, 1 mg/L in ethanol, analytical standard