Galleria mellonella larvae have been used as a host model to study interactions between pathogens and hosts for several years. However, whether the model is useful to interrogate Riemerella anatipestifer infection biology remained unknown. This study aimed to exploit the potential of G. mellonella larvae and reveal their limitations as a host model for R. anatipestifer infection. G. mellonella larvae were shown to be effective for virulence evaluations of different R. anatipestifer strains. Furthermore, the virulent strain R. anatipestifer CH-1 had a stronger ability to proliferate than the attenuated strain R. anatipestifer ATCC 11845 in both G. mellonella larvae and ducklings. Unconventionally it was shown that G. mellonella larvae cannot be used to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobials and their combinations. Additionally, it was shown that certain virulence factors, such as OmpA (B739_0861), B739_1208, B739_1343, and Wza (B739_1124), were specific only for ducklings, suggesting that G. mellonella larvae must be cautiously used to identify virulence factors of R. anatipestifer Evaluation of heme uptake-related virulence genes, such as tonB1 and tonB2, required preincubating the strains with hemoglobin before infection of G. mellonella larvae since R. anatipestifer cannot obtain a heme source from G. mellonella larvae. In conclusion, this study revealed the applicability and limitations of G. mellonella as a model with which to study the pathogen-host interaction, particularly in the context of R. anatipestifer infection.