Cytotoxicity profiling of deep eutectic solvents to human skin cells.

Scientific reports (2019-03-10)
I P E Macário, H Oliveira, A C Menezes, S P M Ventura, J L Pereira, A M M Gonçalves, J A P Coutinho, F J M Gonçalves
ABSTRACT

The tailor-made character of deep eutectic solvents (DES) turns them very attractive to be used in several applications, including in health-related areas such as pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmetic industries. However, although DES has been touted as "green" solvents, several works proved that their potential toxicity should not be neglected. Using the premise of DES applicability in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical sectors, we chose two cell lines to work as a skin model (keratinocytes HaCaT and tumor melanocytes MNT-1), to assess DES cytotoxicity. The effect of three different hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA) ([Chol]Cl, [N1111]Cl and [N4444]Cl) and three different hydrogen bond donors (HBD) (hexanoic and butanoic acid, ethylene glycol, 1-propanol and urea) were evaluated through a common viability assay (MTT assay). Results were promising since [Chol]Cl and [N1111]Cl- based DES showed good biocompatibility for the tested cells. [N4444]Cl-based DES, however, showed cytotoxicity for both cell lines, with the HBA being the driver of the toxicity. Interestingly, some compounds increased cell viability in the HaCaT cell line, namely [Chol]Cl, ethylene glycol, hexanoic acid, urea, and all [Chol]Cl and [N1111]Cl-based DES and should be considered as targets for future studies. These results highlight their possible use in cosmetic or pharmaceutical formulations.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Tetrabutylammonium chloride, ≥97.0% (NT)