MilliporeSigma
  • Intrinsic checkpoint deficiency during cell cycle re-entry from quiescence.

Intrinsic checkpoint deficiency during cell cycle re-entry from quiescence.

The Journal of cell biology (2019-06-13)
Jacob Peter Matson, Amy M House, Gavin D Grant, Huaitong Wu, Joanna Perez, Jeanette Gowen Cook
ABSTRACT

To maintain tissue homeostasis, cells transition between cell cycle quiescence and proliferation. An essential G1 process is minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM) loading at DNA replication origins to prepare for S phase, known as origin licensing. A p53-dependent origin licensing checkpoint normally ensures sufficient MCM loading before S phase entry. We used quantitative flow cytometry and live cell imaging to compare MCM loading during the long first G1 upon cell cycle entry and the shorter G1 phases in the second and subsequent cycles. We discovered that despite the longer G1 phase, the first G1 after cell cycle re-entry is significantly underlicensed. Consequently, the first S phase cells are hypersensitive to replication stress. This underlicensing results from a combination of slow MCM loading with a severely compromised origin licensing checkpoint. The hypersensitivity to replication stress increases over repeated rounds of quiescence. Thus, underlicensing after cell cycle re-entry from quiescence distinguishes a higher-risk first cell cycle that likely promotes genome instability.