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p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Activation Regulates the Timing of the Maturation of Cortical Parvalbumin Interneuron Connectivity and Promotes Juvenile-like Plasticity in Adult Visual Cortex.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (2019-04-03)
Elie Baho, Bidisha Chattopadhyaya, Marisol Lavertu-Jolin, Raffaele Mazziotti, Patricia N Awad, Pegah Chehrazi, Marianne Groleau, Celine Jahannault-Talignani, Elvire Vaucher, Fabrice Ango, Tommaso Pizzorusso, Laura Baroncelli, Graziella Di Cristo
ABSTRACT

By virtue of their extensive axonal arborization and perisomatic synaptic targeting, cortical inhibitory parvalbumin (PV) cells strongly regulate principal cell output and plasticity and modulate experience-dependent refinement of cortical circuits during development. An interesting aspect of PV cell connectivity is its prolonged maturation time course, which is completed only by end of adolescence. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) regulates numerous cellular functions; however, its role on cortical circuit development and plasticity remains elusive, mainly because localizing p75NTR expression with cellular and temporal resolution has been challenging. By using RNAscope and a modified version of the proximity ligation assay, we found that p75NTR expression in PV cells decreases between the second and fourth postnatal week, at a time when PV cell synapse numbers increase dramatically. Conditional knockout of p75NTR in single PV neurons in vitro and in PV cell networks in vivo causes precocious formation of PV cell perisomatic innervation and perineural nets around PV cell somata, therefore suggesting that p75NTR expression modulates the timing of maturation of PV cell connectivity in the adolescent cortex. Remarkably, we found that PV cells still express p75NTR in adult mouse cortex of both sexes and that its activation is sufficient to destabilize PV cell connectivity and to restore cortical plasticity following monocular deprivation in vivo Together, our results show that p75NTR activation dynamically regulates PV cell connectivity, and represent a novel tool to foster brain plasticity in adults.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the cortex, inhibitory, GABA-releasing neurons control the output and plasticity of excitatory neurons. Within this diverse group, parvalbumin-expressing (PV) cells form the larger inhibitory system. PV cell connectivity develops slowly, reaching maturity only at the end of adolescence; however, the mechanisms controlling the timing of its maturation are not well understood. We discovered that the expression of the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR in PV cells inhibits the maturation of their connectivity in a cell-autonomous fashion, both in vitro and in vivo, and that p75NTR activation in adult PV cells promotes their remodeling and restores cortical plasticity. These results reveal a new p75NTR function in the regulation of the time course of PV cell maturation and in limiting cortical plasticity.