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Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth Modulate Early Astrocyte Response after Spinal Cord Contusion.

Molecular neurobiology (2018-05-26)
Fabrício Nicola, Marília Rossato Marques, Felipe Odorcyk, Letícia Petenuzzo, Dirceu Aristimunha, Adriana Vizuete, Eduardo Farias Sanches, Daniela Pavulack Pereira, Natasha Maurmann, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves, Patricia Pranke, Carlos Alexandre Netto
ABSTRACT

The transplantation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) has been studied as a possible treatment strategy for spinal cord injuries (SCIs) due to its potential for promoting tissue protection and functional recovery. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the early transplantation of SHED on glial scar formation and astrocytic reaction after an experimental model of SCI. Wistar rats were spinalized using the NYU Impactor. Animals were randomly distributed into three groups: control (naive) (animal with no manipulation); SCI (receiving laminectomy followed by SCI and treated with vehicle), and SHED (SCI rat treated with intraspinal SHED transplantation, 1 h after SCI). In vitro investigation demonstrated that SHED were able to express mesenchymal stem cells, vimentin and S100B markers, related with neural progenitor and glial cells, respectively. The acute SHED transplantation promoted functional recovery, measured as from the first week after spinal cord contusion by Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scale. Twenty-four and 48 h after lesion, flow cytometry revealed a spinal cord vimentin+ cells increment in the SHED group. The increase of vimentin+ cells was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Moreover, the bioavailability of astrocytic proteins such as S100B and Kir4.1 shown to be increased in the spinal cord of SHED group, whereas there was a glial scar reduction, as indicated by ELISA and Western blot techniques. The presented results support that SHED act as a neuroprotector agent after transplantation, probably through paracrine signaling to reduce glial scar formation, inducing tissue plasticity and functional recovery.