Susceptibility of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) to chlorhexidine digluconate, octenidine dihydrochloride, polyhexanide, PVP-iodine and triclosan in comparison to hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) and community-aquired MRSA (CA-MRSA): a standardized comparison.
Recent publications have raised concerns of reduced susceptibilities of clinical bacterial isolates towards biocides. This study presents a comparative investigation of the susceptibility of livestock-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA), hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) and community-aquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) to the commonly used antiseptics chlorhexidine (CHX), octenidine (OCT), polyhexanide (PHMB), PVP-iodine (PVP-I) and triclosan (TCX) based on internationally accepted standards. In total, 28 (18 LA-, 5 HA- and 5 CA) genetically characterized MRSA strains representing a broad spectrum of hosts, clonal complexes and spa-types, as well as the reference methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strain ATCC 6538, were selected. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal microbicidal concentration (MBC) were determined in accordance with DIN 58940-7, 58940-8 and DIN EN ISO 20776-1. The microbicidal efficacy was determined in accordance with DIN EN 1040. Results from the MIC/MBC and quantitative suspension tests revealed differences between antiseptic substances but not between epidemiological groups of MRSA strains. OCT and PHMB were the most active substances with a minimal MIC of 1 mg/L, followed by CHX (2 mg/L), TCX (32 mg/L) and finally PVP-I (1024 mg/L). The MSSA reference strain showed a tendency to a higher susceptibility compared to the MRSA strains. This investigation of the susceptibility of a range of LA-, HA- and CA-MRSA strains using standardized conditions gave no indication that LA-MRSA strains are less susceptible to commonly used antiseptics compared to HA- and CA-MRSA strains.