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Targeting GPER1 to suppress autophagy as a male-specific therapeutic strategy for iron-induced striatal injury.

Scientific reports (2019-05-02)
Tzu-Yun Chen, Chih-Lung Lin, Li-Fang Wang, Ke-Li Tsai, Jun-Yu Lin, Chin Hsu
ABSTRACT

The functional outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in young male patients are poor than in premenopausal women. After ICH, ferrous iron accumulation causes a higher level of oxidative injury associated with autophagic cell death in striatum of male mice than in females. In rodent model of ferrous citrate (FC)-infusion that simulates iron accumulation after ICH, female endogenous estradiol (E2) suppresses autophagy via estrogen receptor α (ERα) and contributes to less injury severity. Moreover, E2 implantation diminished the FC-induced autophagic cell death and injury in males, whose ERα in the striatum is less than females. Since, no sex difference of ERβ was observed in striatum, we delineated whether ERα and G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1) mediate the suppressions of FC-induced autophagy and oxidative injury by E2 in a sex-dimorphic manner. The results showed that the ratio of constitutive GPER1 to ERα in striatum is higher in males than in females. The GPER1 and ERα predominantly mediated suppressive effects of E2 on FC-induced autophagy in males and antioxidant effect of E2 in females, respectively. This finding opens the prospect of a male-specific therapeutic strategy targeting GPER1 for autophagy suppression in patients suffering from iron overload after hemorrhage.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-LC3B antibody produced in rabbit, ~1 mg/mL, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous solution
Sigma-Aldrich
β-Estradiol 3-benzoate, ≥97%
Sigma-Aldrich
1,3,5-Tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole, powder, ≥98% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-Estrogen Receptor α Antibody, clone 60C, rabbit monoclonal, culture supernatant, clone 60C, from rabbit