Radioresistant cervical cancer is likely to give rise to local recurrence, distant metastatic relapse, and decreased survival rates. Recent studies revealed microRNA mediated regulation of tumor aggressiveness and metastasis; however, whether specific microRNAs regulate tumor radioresistance and can be exploited as radiosensitizing agents remains unclear. Here, we find that miR-29b could promote radiosensitivity in radioresistant subpopulations of cervical cancer cells. Notably, therapeutic delivery of miR-29b mimics via R11-SSPEI nanoparticle, whose specificity has been proved by our previous studies, can sensitize the tumor to radiation in a xenograft model. Mechanistically, we reveal a novel function of miR-29b in regulating intracellular reactive oxygen species signaling and explore a potential application for its use in combination with therapies known to increase oxidative stress such as radiation. Moreover, miR-29b inhibits DNA damage repair by targeting phosphate and tension homology deleted on chromsome ten (PTEN), and overexpression of PTEN could partially rescue miR-29b-mediated homologous recombination (HR)-DNA damage repair and increase radiosensitivity. These findings identify miR-29b as a radiosensitizing microRNA and reveal a new therapeutic strategy for radioresistant tumors.