Dairy cows with ketosis display excessive lipolysis in adipose tissue. Heat-shock protein B7 (HSPB7), a small heat-shock protein, plays important roles in mediating cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress in rodent adipose tissue. Accordingly, it is assumed that HSPB7 may also play important roles in the antioxidant response in adipose tissue of ketotic cows. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate (1) the redox state of adipose tissue in ketotic cows and (2) the role and mechanism of HSPB7 on the regulation of oxidative stress in adipocytes from preruminant calves. An in vivo study consisting of 15 healthy and 15 clinically ketotic cows was performed to harvest subcutaneous adipose tissue and blood samples. In addition, adipocytes isolated from calves were treated with different concentrations of H2O2 (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, or 200 μM) for 2 h, transfected with adenovirus-mediated overexpression of HSPB7 for 48 h, or transfected with small interfering RNA of HSPB7 for 48 h followed by exposure to H2O2 (200 μM) for 2 h. Serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were greater in cows with clinical ketosis, whereas serum concentration of glucose was lower. Compared with healthy cows, the malondialdehyde content was greater but the activity of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase was lower in adipose tissue of clinically ketotic cows. The abundance of HSPB7 and nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2 (NFE2L2) was greater in adipose tissue of clinically ketotic cows. In vitro, H2O2 treatment induced the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, and inhibited the activity of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in adipocytes from preruminant calves. The low concentration of H2O2 (12.5, 25, and 50 μM) increased the abundance of HSPB7 and NFE2L2, but high concentrations of H2O2 (100 or 200 μM) reduced the abundance of HSPB7 and NFE2L2. The overexpression of HSPB7 improved the H2O2-induced oxidative stress in adipocytes via increasing the abundance of NFE2L2 and its downstream target genes heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) and NADH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Knockdown of HSPB7 markedly inhibited the expression of NFE2L2, HMOX1, and NQO1 and further exacerbated H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Overall, these results indicate that activation of the HSPB7-NFE2L2 pathway increases cellular antioxidant capacity, thereby alleviating oxidative stress in bovine adipocytes.