Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the most common causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease. Severe EV-A71 and CV-A16 infections may be associated with life-threatening complications. However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying these severe clinical and pathological features remain incompletely understood. Lipids are known to play critical roles in multiple stages of the virus replication cycle. The specific lipid profile induced upon virus infection is required for optimal virus replication. The perturbations in the host cell lipidomic profiles upon enterovirus infection have not been fully characterized. To this end, we performed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS)-based lipidomics to characterize the change in host lipidome upon EV-A71 and CV-A16 infections. Our results revealed that 47 lipids within 11 lipid classes were significantly perturbed after EV-A71 and CV-A16 infection. Four polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely, arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), were consistently upregulated upon EV-A71 and CV-A16 infection. Importantly, exogenously supplying three of these four PUFAs, including AA, DHA, and EPA, in cell cultures significantly reduced EV-A71 and CV-A16 replication. Taken together, our results suggested that enteroviruses might specifically modulate the host lipid pathways for optimal virus replication. Excessive exogenous addition of lipids that disrupted this delicate homeostatic state could prevent efficient viral replication. Precise manipulation of the host lipid profile might be a potential host-targeting antiviral strategy for enterovirus infection.