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  • Adenine-Based Zn(II)/Cd(II) Metal-Organic Frameworks as Efficient Heterogeneous Catalysts for Facile CO2 Fixation into Cyclic Carbonates: A DFT-Supported Study of the Reaction Mechanism.

Adenine-Based Zn(II)/Cd(II) Metal-Organic Frameworks as Efficient Heterogeneous Catalysts for Facile CO2 Fixation into Cyclic Carbonates: A DFT-Supported Study of the Reaction Mechanism.

Inorganic chemistry (2019-08-23)
Yadagiri Rachuri, Jintu Francis Kurisingal, Ramesh Kumar Chitumalla, Srimai Vuppala, Yunjang Gu, Joonkyung Jang, Youngson Choe, Eringathodi Suresh, Dae-Won Park
ABSTRACT

We synthesized two new adenine-based Zn(II)/Cd(II) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), namely, [Zn2(H2O)(stdb)2(5H-Ade)(9H-Ade)2] n (PNU-21) and [Cd2(Hstdb)(stdb)(8H-Ade)(Ade)] n (PNU-22), containing auxiliary dicarboxylate ligand (stdb = 4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylate). Both MOFs were characterized by multiple analytical techniques such as single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD), powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, as well as temperature program desorption and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements. Both MOFs were structurally robust and possessed unsaturated Lewis acidic metal centers [Zn(II) and Cd(II)] and free basic N atoms of adenine molecules. They were used as heterogeneous catalysts for the fixation of CO2 into five-membered cyclic carbonates. Significant conversion of epichlorohydrin (ECH) was attained at a low CO2 pressure (0.4 MPa) and moderate catalyst (0.6 mol %)/cocatalyst (0.3 mol %) amounts, with over 99% selectivity toward the ECH carbonate. They showed comparable or even higher catalytic activity than other previously reported MOFs. Because of high thermal stability and robust architecture of PNU-21/PNU-22, both catalysts could be reused with simple separation up to five successive cycles without any considerable loss of their catalytic activity. Densely populated acidic and basic sites in both Zn(II)/Cd(II) MOFs facilitated the conversion of ECH to ECH carbonate in high yields. The reaction mechanism of the cycloaddition reaction between ECH and CO2 is described by possible intermediates, transition states, and pathways, from the density functional theory calculation in correlation with the SXRD structure of PNU-21.

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Sigma-Aldrich
4,4′-Stilbenedicarboxylic acid, 98%