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  • Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, protects against ferroptotic cell death in vitro.

Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, protects against ferroptotic cell death in vitro.

Experimental cell research (2019-09-04)
Takujiro Homma, Sho Kobayashi, Hideyo Sato, Junichi Fujii
ABSTRACT

Ferroptosis is characterized by an iron-dependent cell death with increased lipid peroxidation and is typically induced by either a decrease in glutathione (GSH) levels due to an insufficient supply of cysteine (Cys) or the inhibition of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (Gpx4). While lipid peroxides are the direct trigger for ferroptosis, the issue of how radical species involve in the cytocidal process remains unclear. To gain insights into this issue, we employed edaravone, a free radical scavenger that is clinically approved for the treatment of acute ischemic strokes and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), against ferroptotic cell death caused by various situations, notably under cystine deprivation. We initially investigated the effects of edaravone on ferroptosis in mouse hepatoma Hepa 1-6 cells cultivated in cystine-free medium and found that edaravone largely suppressed ferroptosis. Ferroptosis that was induced in the cells by the use of inhibitors for xCT or Gpx4 was also suppressed by edaravone. Moreover, edaravone also suppressed ferroptosis in xCT-knockout mouse-derived embryonic fibroblasts, which usually die in normal cultivating conditions due to the depletion of intracellular Cys and GSH. Although the edaravone treatment had no effects on the intracellular levels of Cys and GSH, both of which remained low in Hepa 1-6 cells under conditions of cystine deprivation, the causative factors for ferroptosis, including ferrous iron and lipid peroxide levels, were significantly suppressed. Collectively, these results indicate that radical species produced at the initial stage of the cytocidal process under Cys-deprived conditions trigger ferroptosis and scavenging these radicals by edaravone represents a promising treatment.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

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