The aim of our study is to: (a) investigate whether ATRA and its steroidal analogue EA-4 enhance micronucleation in human lymphocytes and mouse cells in vitro and clarify the micronucleation mechanism by FISH and CREST analysis respectively, and (b) analyze their effect on spindle organization by immunofluorescence of β- and γ-tubulin in mouse cells. We found that they: (a) induce micronucleation mainly via chromosome breakage and chromosome delay in a lesser extent, (b) disturb microtubule network, chromosome orientation and centrosome duplication/separation, (c) accumulate cell cycle at ana-telophases, which exert micronucleation, multiple γ-tubulin signals, nucleoplasmic bridges and multinucleation, and (d) generate multinucleated and multimicronucleated interphase cells.
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