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  • Genotoxicity of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and its steroidal analogue EA-4 in human lymphocytes and mouse cells in vitro.

Genotoxicity of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and its steroidal analogue EA-4 in human lymphocytes and mouse cells in vitro.

Cancer letters (2011-04-02)
Raghda S Alakhras, Georgia Stephanou, Nikos A Demopoulos, Sotiris S Nikolaropoulos
ABSTRACT

The aim of our study is to: (a) investigate whether ATRA and its steroidal analogue EA-4 enhance micronucleation in human lymphocytes and mouse cells in vitro and clarify the micronucleation mechanism by FISH and CREST analysis respectively, and (b) analyze their effect on spindle organization by immunofluorescence of β- and γ-tubulin in mouse cells. We found that they: (a) induce micronucleation mainly via chromosome breakage and chromosome delay in a lesser extent, (b) disturb microtubule network, chromosome orientation and centrosome duplication/separation, (c) accumulate cell cycle at ana-telophases, which exert micronucleation, multiple γ-tubulin signals, nucleoplasmic bridges and multinucleation, and (d) generate multinucleated and multimicronucleated interphase cells.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Monoclonal Anti-α-Tubulin antibody produced in mouse, ascites fluid, clone B-5-1-2
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-Human Polyvalent Immunoglobulins (whole molecule)−FITC antibody produced in rabbit, IgG fraction of antiserum, buffered aqueous solution
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-Mouse IgG (Fab specific)–TRITC antibody produced in goat, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous solution

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