The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeats containing proteins (NLRs) serve as immune receptors in both plants and animals. Overaccumulation of NLRs often leads to autoimmune responses, suggesting that the levels of these immune receptors must be tightly controlled. However, the mechanism by which NLR protein levels are regulated is unknown. Here we report that the F-box protein CPR1 controls the stability of plant NLR resistance proteins. Loss-of-function mutations in CPR1 lead to higher accumulation of the NLR proteins SNC1 and RPS2, as well as autoactivation of immune responses. The autoimmune responses in cpr1 mutant plants can be largely suppressed by knocking out SNC1. Furthermore, CPR1 interacts with SNC1 and RPS2 in vivo, and overexpressing CPR1 results in reduced accumulation of SNC1 and RPS2, as well as suppression of immunity mediated by these two NLR proteins. Our data suggest that SKP1-CULLIN1-F-box (SCF) complex-mediated stability control of plant NLR proteins plays an important role in regulating their protein levels and preventing autoimmunity.
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