Dietary salt consumption leads to cutaneous Na+ storage and is associated with various disorders, including osteopenia. Here, we explore the impact of Na+ and the osmoprotective transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cell 5 (NFAT5) on bone density and osteoclastogenesis. Compared with treatment of mice with high-salt diet, low-salt diet (LSD) increased bone density, decreased osteoclast numbers, and elevated Na+ content and Nfat5 levels in the BM. This response to LSD was dependent on NFAT5 expressed in myeloid cells. Simulating in vivo findings, we exposed osteoclast precursors and osteoblasts to elevated Na+ content (high-salt conditions; HS¢), resulting in increased NFAT5 binding to the promotor region of RANKL decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). These data not only demonstrate that NFAT5 in myeloid cells determines the Na+ content in BM, but that NFAT5 is able to govern the expression of the osteoprotective gene OPG. This provides insights into mechanisms of Na+-induced cessation of osteoclastogenesis and offers potentially new targets for treating salt-induced osteopenia.