The soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) has been studied in various diseases. It is not clear why sRAGE levels vary between studies, with controversial results. What also remains to be determined is whether receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) ligands could affect sRAGE assessment by epitope masking. Recently described anti-sRAGE autoantibodies may play an interfering role. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the influence of RAGE ligands and anti-sRAGE autoantibodies on sRAGE quantification. The RAGE ligands carboxymethyllysine (CML; AGEs with a high affinity for RAGE), S100 proteins, high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) and β-amyloid peptide (aβ) were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with recombinant sRAGE (rHu-sRAGE) or serum from healthy controls. Using ELISA, anti-sRAGE autoantibodies (IgGs) were identified in haemodialysis (HD) patients, then purified and incubated with rHu-sRAGE or serum to investigate their effects on sRAGE levels. RAGE ligands, either alone at three different concentrations (CML was also tested at different glycation levels) or a mixture of all these ligands, did not affect sRAGE levels when incubated with rHu-sRAGE or control serum. Compared with healthy controls, HD patients had higher levels of sRAGE (P < 0.001) and anti-sRAGE IgGs (P < 0.05). However, incubation of rHu-sRAGE with purified IgGs from HD patients had no effect on sRAGE quantification. RAGE ligands or anti-sRAGE autoantibodies did not interfere with sRAGE quantification. Further studies are required to elucidate the variability in sRAGE levels reported in the literature and to define the potential of sRAGE for use as a reliable biomarker.