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Verteporfin targeting YAP1/TAZ-TEAD transcriptional activity inhibits the tumorigenic properties of gastric cancer stem cells.

International journal of cancer (2019-09-07)
Julie Giraud, Silvia Molina-Castro, Lornella Seeneevassen, Elodie Sifré, Julien Izotte, Camille Tiffon, Cathy Staedel, Hélène Boeuf, Solène Fernandez, Philippe Barthelemy, Francis Megraud, Philippe Lehours, Pierre Dubus, Christine Varon
ABSTRACT

Gastric carcinomas (GC) are heterogeneous tumors, composed of a subpopulation of cluster of differentiation-44 (CD44)+ tumorigenic and chemoresistant cancer stem cells (CSC). YAP1 and TAZ oncoproteins (Y/T) interact with TEA domain family member 1 (TEAD) transcription factors to promote cell survival and proliferation in multiple tissues. Their activity and role in GC remain unclear. This work aimed to analyze Y/T-TEAD activity and molecular signature in gastric CSC, and to assess the effect of verteporfin, a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug preventing Y/T-TEAD interaction, on gastric CSC tumorigenic properties. Y/T-TEAD molecular signature was investigated using bioinformatical (KmPlot database), transcriptomic and immunostaining analyses in patient-derived GC and cell lines. Verteporfin effects on Y/T-TEAD transcriptional activity, CSC proliferation and tumorigenic properties were evaluated using in vitro tumorsphere assays and mouse models of patient-derived GC xenografts. High expressions of YAP1, TAZ, TEAD1, TEAD4 and their target genes were associated with low overall survival in nonmetastatic human GC patients (n = 444). This Y/T-TEAD molecular signature was enriched in CD44+ patient-derived GC cells and in cells resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Verteporfin treatment inhibited Y/T-TEAD transcriptional activity, cell proliferation and CD44 expression, and decreased the pool of tumorsphere-forming CD44+ /aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)high gastric CSC. Finally, verteporfin treatment inhibited GC tumor growth in vivo; the residual tumor cells exhibited reduced expressions of CD44 and ALDH1, and more importantly, they were unable to initiate new tumorspheres in vitro. All these data demonstrate that Y/T-TEAD activity controls gastric CSC tumorigenic properties. The repositioning of verteporfin targeting YAP1/TAZ-TEAD activity could be a promising CSC-based strategy for the treatment of GC.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide, Hybri-Max, sterile-filtered, BioReagent, suitable for hybridoma, ≥99.7%
Sigma-Aldrich
Propidium iodide solution, solution (1.0 mg/ml in water)
Sigma-Aldrich
Verteporfin, ≥94% (HPLC)