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  • Homeostasis of branched-chain amino acids is critical for the activity of TOR signaling in Arabidopsis.

Homeostasis of branched-chain amino acids is critical for the activity of TOR signaling in Arabidopsis.

eLife (2019-12-07)
Pengfei Cao, Sang-Jin Kim, Anqi Xing, Craig A Schenck, Lu Liu, Nan Jiang, Jie Wang, Robert L Last, Federica Brandizzi
ABSTRACT

The target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is an evolutionarily conserved hub of nutrient sensing and metabolic signaling. In plants, a functional connection of TOR activation with glucose availability was demonstrated, while it is yet unclear whether branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are a primary input of TOR signaling as they are in yeast and mammalian cells. Here, we report on the characterization of an Arabidopsis mutant over-accumulating BCAAs. Through chemical interventions targeting TOR and by examining mutants of BCAA biosynthesis and TOR signaling, we found that BCAA over-accumulation leads to up-regulation of TOR activity, which causes reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and actin-associated endomembranes. Finally, we show that activation of TOR is concomitant with alteration of cell expansion, proliferation and specialized metabolism, leading to pleiotropic effects on plant growth and development. These results demonstrate that BCAAs contribute to plant TOR activation and reveal previously uncharted downstream subcellular processes of TOR signaling.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

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