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  • Characteristic Microbiomes Correlate with Polyphosphate Accumulation of Marine Sponges in South China Sea Areas.

Characteristic Microbiomes Correlate with Polyphosphate Accumulation of Marine Sponges in South China Sea Areas.

Microorganisms (2020-01-08)
Huilong Ou, Mingyu Li, Shufei Wu, Linli Jia, Russell T Hill, Jing Zhao
ABSTRACT

Some sponges have been shown to accumulate abundant phosphorus in the form of polyphosphate (polyP) granules even in waters where phosphorus is present at low concentrations. But the polyP accumulation occurring in sponges and their symbiotic bacteria have been little studied. The amounts of polyP exhibited significant differences in twelve sponges from marine environments with high or low dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) concentrations which were quantified by spectral analysis, even though in the same sponge genus, e.g., Mycale sp. or Callyspongia sp. PolyP enrichment rates of sponges in oligotrophic environments were far higher than those in eutrophic environments. Massive polyP granules were observed under confocal microscopy in samples from very low DIP environments. The composition of sponge symbiotic microbes was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing and the corresponding polyphosphate kinase (ppk) genes were detected. Sequence analysis revealed that in the low DIP environment, those sponges with higher polyP content and enrichment rates had relatively higher abundances of cyanobacteria. Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) examined that the polyP enrichment rate was most strongly correlated with the structure of microbial communities, including genera Synechococcus, Rhodopirellula, Blastopirellula, and Rubripirellula. About 50% of ppk genes obtained from the total DNA of sponge holobionts, had above 80% amino acid sequence similarities to those sequences from Synechococcus. In general, it suggested that sponges employed differentiated strategies towards the use of phosphorus in different nutrient environments and the symbiotic Synechococcus could play a key role in accumulating polyP.

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Sodium phosphate glass, Type 45